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  1. Abstract The SuperCDMS SNOLAB dark matter search experiment aims to be sensitive to energy depositions down to 𝒪(1 eV). This imposes requirements on the resolution, signal efficiency, and noise rejection of the trigger system. To accomplish this, the SuperCDMS level-1 trigger system is implemented in an FPGA on a custom PCB. A time-domain optimal filter algorithm realized as a finite impulse response filter provides a baseline resolution of 0.38 times the standard deviation of the noise, σ n , and a 99.9% trigger efficiency for signal amplitudes of 1.1 σ n in typical noise conditions. Embedded in a modular architecture, flexible trigger logic enables reliable triggering and vetoing in a dead-time-free manner for a variety of purposes and run conditions. The trigger architecture and performance are detailed in this article.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  2. East Antarctica is covered by thick sheets of ice and is underlain by stable cratonic lithosphere, extensive mountain ranges, and subglacial basins. The sparse seismic coverage in this region makes it difficult to assess the crustal and mantle structure, which are important to understanding the tectonic evolution of the continent as well as the behavior of the overlying ice sheets. Present tomographic models lack resolution and are often inconsistent with one another; therefore, delineating sub-surface characteristics associated with old rift systems or structures that would allow us to assess the origins of the Wilkes and Aurora subglacial basins, for instance, becomes challenging. To overcome these limitations, we are using a full-waveform tomography method to model the crustal and upper mantle structure in East Antarctica. We have used a frequency-time normalization approach to extract empirical Green’s functions (EGFs) from ambient seismic noise, between periods of 15-340 seconds. The ray path coverage of the EGFs is dense throughout East Antarctica, indicating that our study will provide new, high resolution imaging of this area. Synthetic waveforms are simulated through a three-dimensional heterogeneous Earth model using a finite-difference wave propagation method with a grid spacing of 0.025º (~ 2.25 km), which accurately reproduce Rayleighmore »waves at 15+ seconds. Following this, phase delays are measured between the synthetics and the data, sensitivity kernels are constructed using a scattering integral approach, and we invert using a sparse, least-squares method. The resulting shear-wave velocity model will be used to assess crustal and upper mantle features, ultimately aimed at resolving whether old rift systems exist within East Antarctica in relation to prominent subglacial basins. Preliminary results will be shared.« less
  3. Inertial confinement fusion approaches involve the creation of high-energy-density states through compression. High gain scenarios may be enabled by the beneficial heating from fast electrons produced with an intense laser and by energy containment with a high-strength magnetic field. Here, we report experimental measurements from a configuration integrating a magnetized, imploded cylindrical plasma and intense laser-driven electrons as well as multi-stage simulations that show fast electrons transport pathways at different times during the implosion and quantify their energy deposition contribution. The experiment consisted of a CH foam cylinder, inside an external coaxial magnetic field of 5 T, that was imploded using 36 OMEGA laser beams. Two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic modelling predicts the CH density reaches 9.0   g cm − 3 , the temperature reaches 920 eV and the external B-field is amplified at maximum compression to 580 T. At pre-determined times during the compression, the intense OMEGA EP laser irradiated one end of the cylinder to accelerate relativistic electrons into the dense imploded plasma providing additional heating. The relativistic electron beam generation was simulated using a 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) code. Finally, three-dimensional hybrid-PIC simulations calculated the electron propagation and energy deposition inside the target and revealed the roles the compressed and self-generated B-fieldsmore »play in transport. During a time window before the maximum compression time, the self-generated B-field on the compression front confines the injected electrons inside the target, increasing the temperature through Joule heating. For a stronger B-field seed of 20 T, the electrons are predicted to be guided into the compressed target and provide additional collisional heating. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue ‘Prospects for high gain inertial fusion energy (part 2)’.« less
  4. The structure of the Antarctic crust is important to our understanding of processes occurring within the Antarctic cryosphere as well as to the Earth’s response to ice mass loss. With the increase in geophysical studies of Antarctica, crustal structure has become much better defined beneath many regions. Several crustal models have been created from seismic-derived and/or gravity-derived data, and some of these models incorporate sets of crustal receiver functions either as a priori constraints or to validate model results. However, receiver function constraints do not exist throughout large regions of Antarctica due to a lack of seismic coverage; given this, we search for additional metrics by which we can compare and contrast Earth models. One approach that has been utilized for other continents is to forward model accurate synthetic waveforms through existing seismic velocity models to identify which models most accurately reproduce seismic waveform datasets. Such waveform datasets may come from accurately determined seismic events or from ambient seismic noise. In an effort to assess existing Antarctic crustal models using a different metric to identify regions where crustal structure is still most uncertain, we have collected a suite of available seismic- and gravity-derived Antarctic crustal models. In the absence ofmore »accurately determined ‘ground-truthed’ seismic events in Antarctica, we use a frequency-time normalization approach to extract Rayleigh waves from ambient seismic noise, with periods of 15-55 seconds that are sensitive to crustal structure. We split the observations into two separate validation datasets. The first dataset includes all station-station cross-correlations, with at least one seismic station in each pair that has not been previously used to constrain prior tomographic inversions (a true validation dataset), and the second dataset includes all available station-station cross-correlations, including those that may have been used to constrain some of the models we are testing. We construct sets of Earth models from the available crustal models underlain by two different upper mantle models. We forward model synthetic waveforms using a finite difference approach through each of the Earth models and measure the phase delays between the synthetic waveforms and the ambient seismic noise dataset. Results from our waveform validation study and identification of the poorly characterized regions of Antarctic crust are forthcoming and will be presented.« less