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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 30, 2024
  2. In the k -cut problem, we want to find the lowest-weight set of edges whose deletion breaks a given (multi)graph into k connected components. Algorithms of Karger and Stein can solve this in roughly O ( n 2k ) time. However, lower bounds from conjectures about the k -clique problem imply that Ω ( n (1- o (1)) k ) time is likely needed. Recent results of Gupta, Lee, and Li have given new algorithms for general k -cut in n 1.98k + O(1) time, as well as specialized algorithms with better performance for certain classes of graphs (e.g., for small integer edge weights). In this work, we resolve the problem for general graphs. We show that the Contraction Algorithm of Karger outputs any fixed k -cut of weight α λ k with probability Ω k ( n - α k ), where λ k denotes the minimum k -cut weight. This also gives an extremal bound of O k ( n k ) on the number of minimum k -cuts and an algorithm to compute λ k with roughly n k polylog( n ) runtime. Both are tight up to lower-order factors, with the algorithmic lower bound assuming hardness of max-weight k -clique. The first main ingredient in our result is an extremal bound on the number of cuts of weight less than 2 λ k / k , using the Sunflower lemma. The second ingredient is a fine-grained analysis of how the graph shrinks—and how the average degree evolves—in the Karger process. 
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  3. We consider column‐sparse covering integer programs, a generalization of set cover. We develop a new rounding scheme based on the partial resampling variant of the Lovász Local Lemma developed by Harris and Srinivasan. This achieves an approximation ratio of, whereaminis the minimum covering constraint andis the maximum1‐norm of any column of the covering matrixA(whose entries are scaled to lie in [0, 1]). With additional constraints on the variable sizes, we get an approximation ratio of(whereis the maximum number of nonzero entries in any column ofA). These results improve asymptotically over results of Srinivasan and results of Kolliopoulos and Young. We show nearly‐matching lower bounds. We also show that the rounding process leads to negative correlation among the variables.

     
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  4. The Lovász Local Lemma (LLL) is a cornerstone principle in the probabilistic method of combinatorics, and a seminal algorithm of Moser & Tardos (2010) provides an efficient randomized algorithm to implement it. This algorithm can be parallelized to give an algorithm that uses polynomially many processors and runs in O(log3 n) time, stemming from O(log n) adaptive computations of a maximal independent set (MIS). Chung et al. (2014) developed faster local and parallel algorithms, potentially running in time O (log^2 n), but these algorithms work under significantly more stringent conditions than the LLL. We give a new parallel algorithm that works under essentially the same conditions as the original algorithm of Moser & Tardos but uses only a single MIS computation, thus running in O(log^2 n) time. This conceptually new algorithm also gives a clean combinatorial description of a satisfying assignment which might be of independent interest. Our techniques extend to the deterministic LLL algorithm given by Chandrasekaran et al. (2013) leading to an NC-algorithm running in time O(log^2 n) as well. We also provide improved bounds on the runtimes of the sequential and parallel resampling-based algorithms originally developed by Moser & Tardos. Our bounds extend to any problem instance in which the tighter Shearer LLL criterion is satisfied. We also improve on the analysis of Kolipaka & Szegedy (2011) to give tighter concentration results. 
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