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  1. A bstract Discoveries of new phenomena often involve a dedicated search for a hypothetical physics signature. Recently, novel deep learning techniques have emerged for anomaly detection in the absence of a signal prior. However, by ignoring signal priors, the sensitivity of these approaches is significantly reduced. We present a new strategy dubbed Quasi Anomalous Knowledge (QUAK), whereby we introduce alternative signal priors that capture some of the salient features of new physics signatures, allowing for the recovery of sensitivity even when the alternative signal is incorrect. This approach can be applied to a broad range of physics models and neuralmore »network architectures. In this paper, we apply QUAK to anomaly detection of new physics events at the CERN Large Hadron Collider utilizing variational autoencoders with normalizing flow.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2022
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  5. Machine learning algorithms are becoming increasingly prevalent and performant in the reconstruction of events in accelerator-based neutrino experiments. These sophisticated algorithms can be computationally expensive. At the same time, the data volumes of such experiments are rapidly increasing. The demand to process billions of neutrino events with many machine learning algorithm inferences creates a computing challenge. We explore a computing model in which heterogeneous computing with GPU coprocessors is made available as a web service. The coprocessors can be efficiently and elastically deployed to provide the right amount of computing for a given processing task. With our approach, Services formore »Optimized Network Inference on Coprocessors (SONIC), we integrate GPU acceleration specifically for the ProtoDUNE-SP reconstruction chain without disrupting the native computing workflow. With our integrated framework, we accelerate the most time-consuming task, track and particle shower hit identification, by a factor of 17. This results in a factor of 2.7 reduction in the total processing time when compared with CPU-only production. For this particular task, only 1 GPU is required for every 68 CPU threads, providing a cost-effective solution.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 14, 2022
  6. Computing needs for high energy physics are already intensive and are expected to increase drastically in the coming years. In this context, heterogeneous computing, specifically as-a-service computing, has the potential for significant gains over traditional computing models. Although previous studies and packages in the field of heterogeneous computing have focused on GPUs as accelerators, FPGAs are an extremely promising option as well. A series of workflows are developed to establish the performance capabilities of FPGAs as a service. Multiple different devices and a range of algorithms for use in high energy physics are studied. For a small, dense network, themore »throughput can be improved by an order of magnitude with respect to GPUs as a service. For large convolutional networks, the throughput is found to be comparable to GPUs as a service. This work represents the first open-source FPGAs-as-a-service toolkit.« less
  7. Graph neural networks have been shown to achieve excellent performance for several crucial tasks in particle physics, such as charged particle tracking, jet tagging, and clustering. An important domain for the application of these networks is the FGPA-based first layer of real-time data filtering at the CERN Large Hadron Collider, which has strict latency and resource constraints. We discuss how to design distance-weighted graph networks that can be executed with a latency of less than one μs on an FPGA. To do so, we consider a representative task associated to particle reconstruction and identification in a next-generation calorimeter operating atmore »a particle collider. We use a graph network architecture developed for such purposes, and apply additional simplifications to match the computing constraints of Level-1 trigger systems, including weight quantization. Using the hls4ml library, we convert the compressed models into firmware to be implemented on an FPGA. Performance of the synthesized models is presented both in terms of inference accuracy and resource usage.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 12, 2022
  8. Computing needs for high energy physics are already intensive and are expected to increase drastically in the coming years. In this context, heterogeneous computing, specifically as-a-service computing, has the potential for significant gains over traditional computing models. Although previous studies and packages in the field of heterogeneous computing have focused on GPUs as accelerators, FPGAs are an extremely promising option as well. A series of workflows are developed to establish the performance capabilities of FPGAs as a service. Multiple different devices and a range of algorithms for use in high energy physics are studied. For a small, dense network, themore »throughput can be improved by an order of magnitude with respect to GPUs as a service. For large convolutional networks, the throughput is found to be comparable to GPUs as a service. This work represents the first open-source FPGAs-as-a-service toolkit.« less