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  1. Combining the preferences of many rankers into one single consensus ranking is critical for consequential applications from hiring and admissions to lending. While group fairness has been extensively studied for classification, group fairness in rankings and in particular rank aggregation remains in its infancy. Recent work introduced the concept of fair rank aggregation for combining rankings but restricted to the case when candidates have a single binary protected attribute, i.e., they fall into two groups only. Yet it remains an open problem how to create a consensus ranking that represents the preferences of all rankers while ensuring fair treatment for candidates with multiple protected attributes such as gender, race, and nationality. In this work, we are the first to define and solve this open Multi-attribute Fair Consensus Ranking (MFCR) problem. As a foundation, we design novel group fairness criteria for rankings, called MANI-Rank, ensuring fair treatment of groups defined by individual protected attributes and their intersection. Leveraging the MANI-Rank criteria, we develop a series of algorithms that for the first time tackle the MFCR problem. Our experimental study with a rich variety of consensus scenarios demonstrates our MFCR methodology is the only approach to achieve both intersectional and protected attributemore »fairness while also representing the preferences expressed through many base rankings. Our real-world case study on merit scholarships illustrates the effectiveness of our MFCR methods to mitigate bias across multiple protected attributes and their intersections.« less
  2. We demonstrate the facile and robust generation of giant peptide vesicles by using an emulsion transfer method. These robust vesicles can sustain chemical and physical stresses. The peptide vesicles can host cell-free expression reactions by encapsulating essential ingredients. We show the incorporation of another cell-free expressed elastin-like polypeptide into the existing membrane of the peptide vesicles.
  3. Oceanic island basalts are targeted for geochemical study because they provide a direct window into mantle composition and a wealth of information on the dynamics and timescales associated with Earth mixing. Previous studies mainly focused on the shield volcanic stage of oceanic islands and the more fusible, enriched mantle components that are easily distinguished in those basalts. Mantle depleted compositions are typically more difficult to resolve unless large amounts of this material participated in mantle melting (e.g., mid-ocean ridges), or unique processes allow for their compositions to be erupted undiluted, such as very small degrees of melting of a source with minimal fusible enriched components (e.g., rejuvenated basalts) or as xenoliths (e.g., abyssal peridotites). Mantle depleted components, defined here as material with low time-integrated Rb/Sr (low 87Sr/86Sr) and high time-integrated Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf ratios (high 143Nd/144Nd and 176Hf/177Hf) relative to primitive mantle, derive from a potentially very large volume reservoir (up to 80% of the mantle), and therefore need adequate characterization in order estimate the composition of the Earth and mantle-derived melts. This review focuses on mantle depleted compositions in oceanic island basalts using the Hawaiian-Emperor chain as a case study. The Hawaiian-Emperor chain is the ∼6000 km long geologicalmore »record of the deeply sourced Hawaiian mantle plume, active for>81 Myr. Hawaiian volcanism evolves through four volcanic stages as a volcano traverses the Hawaiian plume: alkalic preshield, tholeiitic shield (80–90% volcano volume), alkalic postshield (∼1%), and silica undersaturated rejuvenated (< 0.1%). We report Pb-Sr-Nd-Hf isotope compositions and trace element concentrations of three rejuvenated Northwest Hawaiian Ridge basalts and compare them to an exhaustive compiled dataset of basalts from the Hawaiian Islands to the Emperor Seamounts. The Northwest Hawaiian Ridge (NWHR) includes 51 volcanoes spanning ∼42 m.y. between the bend in the Hawaiian-Emperor chain and the Hawaiian Islands where there is no high-precision isotopic data published on the rejuvenated-stage over ∼47% of the chain. NWHR and Hawaiian Island rejuvenated basalts are geochemically similar, indicating a consistent source for rejuvenated volcanism over ∼12.5 million years. In contrast, shield-stage basalts from the oldest Emperor Seamounts are more depleted in isotopic composition (i.e., higher 176Hf/177Hf, and 143Nd/144Nd with lower 87Sr/86Sr and 208Pb*/206Pb*) and trace element concentrations (i.e., much lower concentrations of highly incompatible elements) than all other depleted Hawaiian basalts younger than the bend, including NWHR rejuvenated basalts. The strongly depleted source for the oldest Emperor Seamounts (> 70 Ma) was likely related to interaction with the Kula-Pacific-Izanagi mid-ocean ridge spreading system active near the Hawaiian plume in the Late Cretaceous. In contrast, the incompatible trace element ratios of NWHR rejuvenated basalts require a distinct source in the Hawaiian mantle plume that was imprinted by ancient (> 1 Ga) partial melting, likely ancient recycled oceanic lithosphere. This review of the geochemistry of Hawaiian depleted components documents the need for the sampling of multiple distinctive depleted compositions, each preferentially melted during specific periods of Hawaiian plume activity. This suggests that the composition of depleted components can evolve during the lifetime of the mantle plume, as observed for enriched components in the Hawaiian mantle plume. Changes in the composition of depleted components are dominantly controlled by the upper mantle tectonic configurations at the time of eruption (i.e., proximity to a mid-ocean ridge), as this effect overwhelms the signal imparted by potentially sampling different lower mantle components through time.« less