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  1. For applications where multiple stakeholders provide recommendations, a fair consensus ranking must not only ensure that the preferences of rankers are well represented, but must also mitigate disadvantages among socio-demographic groups in the final result. However, there is little empirical guidance on the value or challenges of visualizing and integrating fairness metrics and algorithms into human-in-the-loop systems to aid decision-makers. In this work, we design a study to analyze the effectiveness of integrating such fairness metrics-based visualization and algorithms. We explore this through a task-based crowdsourced experiment comparing an interactive visualization system for constructing consensus rankings, ConsensusFuse, with a similar system that includes visual encodings of fairness metrics and fair-rank generation algorithms, FairFuse. We analyze the measure of fairness, agreement of rankers’ decisions, and user interactions in constructing the fair consensus ranking across these two systems. In our study with 200 participants, results suggest that providing these fairness-oriented support features nudges users to align their decision with the fairness metrics while minimizing the tedious process of manually having to amend the consensus ranking. We discuss the implications of these results for the design of next-generation fairness oriented-systems and along with emerging directions for future research. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 12, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 19, 2024
  3. Fair consensus building combines the preferences of multiple rankers into a single consensus ranking, while ensuring any group defined by a protected attribute (such as race or gender) is not disadvantaged compared to other groups. Manually generating a fair consensus ranking is time-consuming and impractical- even for a fairly small number of candidates. While algorithmic approaches for auditing and generating fair consensus rankings have been developed, these have not been operationalized in interactive systems. To bridge this gap, we introduce FairFuse, a visualization system for generating, analyzing, and auditing fair consensus rankings. We construct a data model which includes base rankings entered by rankers, augmented with measures of group fairness, and algorithms for generating consensus rankings with varying degrees of fairness. We design novel visualizations that encode these measures in a parallel-coordinates style rank visualization, with interactions for generating and exploring fair consensus rankings. We describe use cases in which FairFuse supports a decision-maker in ranking scenarios in which fairness is important, and discuss emerging challenges for future efforts supporting fairness-oriented rank analysis. Code and demo videos available at https://osf.io/hd639/. 
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  4. Interactive web-based applications play an important role for both service providers and consumers. However, web applications tend to be complex, produce high-volume data, and are often ripe for attack. Attack analysis and remediation are complicated by adversary obfuscation and the difficulty in assembling and analyzing logs. In this work, we explore the web application analysis task through log file fusion, distillation, and visualization. Our approach consists of visualizing the logs of web and database traffic with detailed function execution traces. We establish causal links between events and their associated behaviors. We evaluate the effectiveness of this process using data volume reduction statistics, user interaction models, and usage scenarios. Across a set of scenarios, we find that our techniques can filter at least 97.5% of log data and reduce analysis time by 93-96%. 
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  5. Quantifying user performance with metrics such as time and accuracy does not show the whole picture when researchers evaluate complex, interactive visualization tools. In such systems, performance is often influenced by different analysis strategies that statistical analysis methods cannot account for. To remedy this lack of nuance, we propose a novel analysis methodology for evaluating complex interactive visualizations at scale. We implement our analysis methods in reVISit, which enables analysts to explore participant interaction performance metrics and responses in the context of users' analysis strategies. Replays of participant sessions can aid in identifying usability problems during pilot studies and make individual analysis processes salient. To demonstrate the applicability of reVISit to visualization studies, we analyze participant data from two published crowdsourced studies. Our findings show that reVISit can be used to reveal and describe novel interaction patterns, to analyze performance differences between different analysis strategies, and to validate or challenge design decisions. 
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    Visualizing multivariate networks is challenging because of the trade-offs necessary for effectively encoding network topology and encoding the attributes associated with nodes and edges. A large number of multivariate network visualization techniques exist, yet there is little empirical guidance on their respective strengths and weaknesses. In this paper, we describe a crowdsourced experiment, comparing node-link diagrams with on-node encoding and adjacency matrices with juxtaposed tables. We find that node-link diagrams are best suited for tasks that require close integration between the network topology and a few attributes. Adjacency matrices perform well for tasks related to clusters and when many attributes need to be considered. We also reflect on our method of using validated designs for empirically evaluating complex, interactive visualizations in a crowdsourced setting. We highlight the importance of training, compensation, and provenance tracking. 
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  8. Model-finders such as SAT-solvers are attractive for produc- ing concrete models, either as sample instances or as counterexamples when properties fail. However, the generated model is arbitrary. To ad- dress this, several research efforts have proposed principled forms of output from model-finders. These include minimal and maximal models, unsat cores, and proof-based provenance of facts. While these methods enjoy elegant mathematical foundations, they have not been subjected to rigorous evaluation on users to assess their utility. This paper presents user studies of these three forms of output performed on advanced students. We find that most of the output forms fail to be effective, and in some cases even actively mislead users. To make such studies feasible to run frequently and at scale, we also show how we can pose such studies on the crowdsourcing site Mechanical Turk. 
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