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  1. Abstract

    Voltage control of exchange bias is desirable for spintronic device applications, however dynamic modulation of the unidirectional coupling energy in ferromagnet/antiferromagnet bilayers has not yet been achieved. Here we show that by solid-state hydrogen gating, perpendicular exchange bias can be enhanced by > 100% in a reversible and analog manner, in a simple Co/Co0.8Ni0.2O heterostructure at room temperature. We show that this phenomenon is an isothermal analog to conventional field-cooling and that sizable changes in average coupling energy can result from small changes in AFM grain rotatability. Using this method, we show that a bi-directionally stable ferromagnet can be made unidirectionally stable, with gate voltage alone. This work provides a means to dynamically reprogram exchange bias, with broad applicability in spintronics and neuromorphic computing, while simultaneously illuminating fundamental aspects of exchange bias in polycrystalline films.

     
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  2. Abstract Using experiments and theory, we investigate the behavior of nonlinear acoustic modes in a physical system composed of an array of three coupled acoustic waveguides, two of which are externally driven with two different frequencies. Nonlinear modes with frequency given by linear combinations of the driving frequencies are realizations of so-called logical phi-bits. A phi-bit is a two-state degree of freedom of an acoustic wave, which can be in a coherent superposition of states with complex amplitude coefficients, i.e., a qubit analogue. We demonstrate experimentally that phi-bit modes are supported in the array of waveguides. Using perturbation theory, we show that phi-bits may result from the intrinsic nonlinearity of the material used to couple the waveguides. We have also isolated possible effects on phi-bit states associated with the systems’ electronics, transducers and ultrasonic coupling agents used to probe the array and that may introduce extrinsic nonlinearities. These extrinsic effects are shown to be easily separable from the intrinsic behavior. The intrinsic behavior includes sharp jumps in phi-bit phases occurring over very narrow ranges of driving frequency. These jumps may also exhibit hysteretic behavior dependent on the direction of driving frequency tuning. The intrinsic states of phi-bits and multiple nonlinearly correlated phi-bits may serve as foundation for robust and practical quantum-analogue information technologies. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  3. Aliannejadi, M ; Faggioli, G ; Ferro, N ; Vlachos, M. (Ed.)
    This work discusses the participation of CS_Morgan in the Concept Detection and Caption Prediction tasks of the ImageCLEFmedical 2023 Caption benchmark evaluation campaign. The goal of this task is to automatically identify relevant concepts and their locations in images, as well as generate coherent captions for the images. The dataset used for this task is a subset of the extended Radiology Objects in Context (ROCO) dataset. The implementation approach employed by us involved the use of pre-trained Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), Vision Transformer (ViT), and Text-to-Text Transfer Transformer (T5) architectures. These models were leveraged to handle the different aspects of the tasks, such as concept detection and caption generation. In the Concept Detection task, the objective was to classify multiple concepts associated with each image. We utilized several deep learning architectures with ‘sigmoid’ activation to enable multilabel classification using the Keras framework. We submitted a total of five (5) runs for this task, and the best run achieved an F1 score of 0.4834, indicating its effectiveness in detecting relevant concepts in the images. For the Caption Prediction task, we successfully submitted eight (8) runs. Our approach involved combining the ViT and T5 models to generate captions for the images. For the caption prediction task, the ranking is based on the BERTScore, and our best run achieved a score of 0.5819 based on generating captions using the fine-tuned T5 model from keywords generated using the pretrained ViT as the encoder. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 4, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  5. Abstract

    Kagome lattices host flat bands due to their frustrated lattice geometry, which leads to destructive quantum interference of electron wave functions. Here, we report imaging of the kagome flat band localization in real-space using scanning tunneling microscopy. We identify both the Fe3Sn kagome lattice layer and the Sn2honeycomb layer with atomic resolution in kagome antiferromagnet FeSn. On the Fe3Sn lattice, at the flat band energy determined by the angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy, tunneling spectroscopy detects an unusual state localized uniquely at the Fe kagome lattice network. We further show that the vectorial in-plane magnetic field manipulates the spatial anisotropy of the localization state within each kagome unit cell. Our results are consistent with the real-space flat band localization in the magnetic kagome lattice. We further discuss the magnetic tuning of flat band localization under the spin–orbit coupled magnetic kagome lattice model.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  6. We experimentally navigate the Hilbert space of two logical phi-bits supported by an externally driven nonlinear array of coupled acoustic waveguides by parametrically changing the relative phase of the drivers. We observe sharp phase jumps of approximately 180° in the individual phi-bit states as a result of the phase tuning of the drivers. The occurrence of these sharp phase jumps varies from phi-bit to phi-bit. All phi-bit phases also possess a common background dependency on the drivers’ phase. Within the context of multiple time scale perturbation theory, we develop a simple model of the nonlinear array of externally driven coupled acoustic waveguides to shed light on the possible mechanisms for the experimentally observed behavior of the logical phi-bit phase. Finally, we illustrate the ability to experimentally initialize the state of single- and multiple- phi-bit systems by exploiting the drivers’ phase as a tuning parameter. We also show that the nonlinear correlation between phi-bits enables parallelism in the manipulation of two- and multi-phi-bit superpositions of states. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  7. Logical phi-bits are nonlinear acoustic modes analogous to qubits and supported by an externally driven acoustic metastructure. A correspondence is established between the state of three correlated logical phi-bits represented in a low-dimensional linearly scaling physical space and their state representation as a complex vector in a high-dimensional exponentially scaling Hilbert space. We show the experimental implementation of a nontrivial three phi-bit unitary operation analogous to a quantum circuit. This three phi-bit gate operates in parallel on the components of the three phi-bit complex state vector. While this operation would be challenging to perform in one step on a quantum computer, by comparison, ours requires only a single physical action on the metastructure. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 3, 2024
  8. Abstract The Controlled-NOT (CNOT) gate is the key to unlock the power of quantum computing as it is a fundamental component of a universal set of gates. We demonstrate the operation of a two-bit C-NOT quantum-like gate using classical qubit acoustic analogues, called herein logical phi-bits. The logical phi-bits are supported by an externally driven nonlinear acoustic metamaterial composed of a parallel array of three elastically coupled waveguides. A logical phi-bit has a two-state degree of freedom associated with the two independent relative phases of the acoustic wave in the three waveguides. A simple physical manipulation involving the detuning of the frequency of one of the external drivers is shown to operate on the complex vectors in the Hilbert space of pairs of logical phi-bits. This operation achieves a systematic and predictable C-NOT gate with unambiguously measurable input and output. The possibility of scaling the approach to more phi-bits is promising. 
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