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  1. Polynoidae Kinberg, 1856 has five branchiate genera: Branchipolynoe Pettibone, 1984, Branchinotogluma Pettibone, 1985, Branchiplicatus Pettibone, 1985, Peinaleopolynoe Desbruyères & Laubier, 1988, and Thermopolynoe Miura, 1994, all native to deep-sea, chemosynthetic-based habitats. Of these, Peinaleopolynoe has two accepted species; Peinaleopolynoe sillardi Desbruyères & Laubier, 1988 (Atlantic Ocean) and Peinaleopolynoe santacatalina Pettibone, 1993 (East Pacific Ocean). The goal of this study was to assess the phylogenetic position of Peinaleopolynoe , utilizing DNA sequences from a broad sampling of deep-sea polynoids. Representatives from all five branchiate genera were included, several species of which were sampled from near the type localities; Branchinotogluma sandersi Pettibone, 1985 from the Galápagos Rift (E/V “Nautilus”); Peinaleopolynoe sillardi from organic remains in the Atlantic Ocean; Peinaleopolynoe santacatalina from a whalefall off southern California (R/V “Western Flyer”) and Thermopolynoe branchiata Miura, 1994 from Lau Back-Arc Basin in the western Pacific (R/V “Melville”). Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using mitochondrial (COI, 16S rRNA, and CytB) and nuclear (18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, and H3) genes. The analyses revealed four new Peinaleopolynoe species from the Pacific Ocean that are formally described here: Peinaleopolynoe orphanae Hatch & Rouse, sp. nov. , type locality Pescadero Basin in the Gulf of California, Mexico (R/V “Western Flyer”); Peinaleopolynoemore »elvisi Hatch & Rouse, sp. nov. and Peinaleopolynoe goffrediae Hatch & Rouse, sp. nov. , both with a type locality in Monterey Canyon off California (R/V “Western Flyer”) and Peinaleopolynoe mineoi Hatch & Rouse, sp. nov. from Costa Rica methane seeps (R/V “Falkor”). In addition to DNA sequence data, the monophyly of Peinaleopolynoe is supported by the presence of ventral papillae on segments 12–15. The results also demonstrated the paraphyly of Branchinotogluma and Lepidonotopodium Pettibone, 1983 and taxonomic revision of these genera is required. We apply the subfamily name Lepidonotopodinae Pettibone 1983, for the clade comprised of Branchipolynoe , Branchinotogluma , Bathykurila , Branchiplicatus , Lepidonotopodium , Levensteiniella Pettibone, 1985, Thermopolynoe , and Peinaleopolynoe .« less
  2. The four named species of Branchipolynoe all live symbiotically in mytilid mussels (Bathymodiolus) that occur at hydrothermal vents or methane seeps. Analyses using mitochondrial (COI and 16S) and nuclear (ITS) genes, as well as morphology, were conducted on a collection of Branchipolynoe from Pacific Costa Rican methane seeps and West Pacific hydrothermal vents. This revealed five new species of Branchipolynoe, and these are formally described. The new species from Costa Rica live in three species of Bathymodiolus mussels (also new) at depths ranging from 1000 to 1800 m. Branchipolynoe kajsae n. sp. and Branchipolynoe halliseyae n. sp. were found in all three undescribed Bathymodiolus species, while Branchipolynoe eliseae n. sp. was found in Bathymodiolus spp. 1 and 2, and Branchipolynoe meridae n. sp. was found in Bathymodiolus spp. 1 and 3. Hence, Bathymodiolus sp. 1 hosted all four of the new species, while the other two Bathymodiolus hosted three each. Most mussels contained only one specimen of Branchipolynoe; where there was more than one, these were often a female and smaller male of the same species. The newly discovered species from the West Pacific, Branchipolynoe tjiasmantoi n. sp., lives in unidentified Bathymodiolus at depths ranging from 674 to 2657 mmore »from hydrothermal vents in the North Fiji (Fiji) and Lau Basins (Tonga) and also from New Zealand, Vanuatu, and the Manus Basin (Papua New Guinea). The phylogenetic and biogeographical implications of this diversity of Branchipolynoe are discussed.« less