skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Hatzell, Marta"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 8, 2022
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 23, 2022
  4. A continuum of water populations can exist in nanoscale layered materials, which impacts transport phenomena relevant for separation, adsorption, and charge storage processes. Quantification and direct interrogation of water structure and organization are important in order to design materials with molecular-level control for emerging energy and water applications. Through combining molecular simulations with ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, we directly probe hydration mechanisms at confined and nonconfined regions in nanolayered transition-metal carbide materials. Hydrophobic (K + ) cations decrease water mobility within the confined interlayer and accelerate water removal at nonconfined surfaces. Hydrophilic cations (Li + ) increase water mobility within the confined interlayer and decrease water-removal rates at nonconfined surfaces. Solutes, rather than the surface terminating groups, are shown to be more impactful on the kinetics of water adsorption and desorption. Calculations from grand canonical molecular dynamics demonstrate that hydrophilic cations (Li + ) actively aid in water adsorption at MXene interfaces. In contrast, hydrophobic cations (K + ) weakly interact with water, leading to higher degrees of water ordering (orientation) and faster removal at elevated temperatures.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 29, 2022
  5. Abstract

    Understanding the thermodynamics associated with ion mixing and separation processes is important in order to meet the rising demands for clean energy and water production. Several electrochemical-based technologies such as capacitive deionization and capacitive mixing (CapMix) are capable of achieving desalination and energy production through ion mixing and separation processes, yet experimental investigations suggest energy conversion occurs with low second law (thermodynamic) efficiency. Here, we explore the maximum attainable efficiency for different CapMix cycles to investigate the impact cycle operation has on energy extraction. All investigated cycles are analogous to well documented heat engine cycles. In order to analyze CapMix cycles, we develop a physics-based model of the electric double layer based on the Gouy-Chapman-Stern theory. Evaluating CapMix cycles for energy generation revealed that cycles where ion mixing occurs at constant concentration and switching occurs at constant charge (a cycle analogous to the Stirling engine) attained the highest overall first law (electrical energy) efficiency (39%). This first law efficiency is nearly 300% greater than the first law efficiency of the Otto, Diesel, Brayton, and Atkinson analog cycles where ion mixing occurs while maintaining a constant number of ions. Additionally, the maximum first law efficiency was 89% with a maximummore »work output of 0.5 kWh per m3 of solution mixed (V = 1.0V) using this same Stirling cycle. Here the salinity gradient was CH = 600 mM and CL = 1 mM (ΔGmix = 0.56 kWh/m3). The effect of voltage was also examined at CH = 600 mM (seawater) and CL = 20 mM (river water). CapMix cycles operated at lower voltage (V < 1.0V), resulted in the Otto cycle yielding the highest first law efficiency of approximately 25% (compared to under 20% for the Stirling cycle); however, this was at the expense of a reduction (50x) in net electrical energy extracted from the same mixing process (0.01 kWh per m3).

    « less