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  1. Levoglucosan is a renewable chemical obtained in high yields from pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass, which offers rich functionality for synthetic modification and crosslinking. Here, we report the facile and scalable synthesis of a family of biobased networks from triallyl levoglucosan and multifunctional thiols via UV-initiated thiol–ene click chemistry. The multifunctional thiols utilized in this study can also be sourced from renewable feedstocks, leading to overall high bio-based content of the synthesized levoglucosan networks. The thermomechanical and hydrolytic degradation properties of the resultant networks are tailored based on the type and stoichiometric ratio of thiol crosslinker employed. The Young's modulus and glass transition temperature of levoglucosan-based networks are tunable over the wide ranges of 3.3 MPa to 14.5 MPa and −19.4 °C to 6.9 °C, respectively. The levoglucosan-based thermosets exhibit excellent thermal stability with Td,10% > 305 °C for all networks. The suitability of these resin formulations for extrusion-based 3D printing was illustrated using a UV-assisted direct ink write (DIW) system creating 3D printed parts with excellent fidelity. Hydrolytic degradation of these 3D printed parts via ester hydrolysis demonstrated that levoglucosan-based resins are excellent candidates for sustainable rapid prototyping and mass production applications. Overall, this work displays the utility of levoglucosan as a renewable platform chemical that enables access to tailored thermosets important in applications ranging from 3D printing to biomaterials. 
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  2. Many natural organisms, such as fungal hyphae and plant roots, grow at their tips, enabling the generation of complex bodies composed of natural materials as well as dexterous movement and exploration. Tip growth presents an exemplary process by which materials synthesis and actuation are coupled, providing a blueprint for how growth could be realized in a synthetic system. Herein, we identify three underlying principles essential to tip-based growth of biological organisms: a fluid pressure driving force, localized polymerization for generating structure, and fluid-mediated transport of constituent materials. In this work, these evolved features inspire a synthetic materials growth process called extrusion by self-lubricated interface photopolymerization (E-SLIP), which can continuously fabricate solid profiled polymer parts with tunable mechanical properties from liquid precursors. To demonstrate the utility of E-SLIP, we create a tip-growing soft robot, outline its fundamental governing principles, and highlight its capabilities for growth at speeds up to 12 cm/min and lengths up to 1.5 m. This growing soft robot is capable of executing a range of tasks, including exploration, burrowing, and traversing tortuous paths, which highlight the potential for synthetic growth as a platform for on-demand manufacturing of infrastructure, exploration, and sensing in a variety of environments. 
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