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    Previous results in the literature have found the young inner-disc open cluster NGC 6705 to be mildly α-enhanced. We examined this possibility via an independent chemical abundance analysis for 11 red-giant members of NGC 6705. The analysis is based on near-infrared APOGEE spectra and relies on LTE calculations using spherical model atmospheres and radiative transfer. We find a mean cluster metallicity of $\rm [Fe/H] = +0.13 \pm 0.04$, indicating that NGC 6705 is metal-rich, as may be expected for a young inner-disc cluster. The mean α-element abundance relative to iron is $\rm \langle [\alpha /Fe]\rangle =-0.03 \pm 0.05$, which is not at odds with expectations from general Galactic abundance trends. NGC 6705 also provides important probes for studying stellar mixing, given its turn-off mass of M ∼ 3.3 M⊙. Its red giants have low 12C abundances ([12C/Fe] = −0.16) and enhanced 14N abundances ([14N/Fe] = +0.51), which are key signatures of the first dredge-up on the red giant branch. An additional signature of dredge-up was found in the Na abundances, which are enhanced by [Na/Fe] = +0.29, with a very small non-LTE correction. The 16O and Al abundances are found to be near-solar. All of the derived mixing-sensitive abundances are in agreement with stellar models of approximately 3.3 M⊙ evolving along the red giant branch and onto the red clump. As found in young open clusters with similar metallicities, NGC 6705 exhibits a mild excess in the s-process element cerium with $\rm [Ce/Fe] = +0.13\pm 0.07$.

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  2. Abstract The APOGEE Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping survey is used to probe the chemical evolution of the s-process element cerium in the Galactic disk. Cerium abundances were derived from measurements of Ce ii lines in the APOGEE spectra using the Brussels Automatic Code for Characterizing High Accuracy Spectra in 218 stars belonging to 42 open clusters. Our results indicate that, in general, for ages < 4 Gyr, younger open clusters have higher [Ce/Fe] and [Ce/ α -element] ratios than older clusters. In addition, metallicity segregates open clusters in the [Ce/X]–age plane (where X can be H, Fe, or the α -elements O, Mg, Si, or Ca). These metallicity-dependent relations result in [Ce/Fe] and [Ce/ α ] ratios with ages that are not universal clocks. Radial gradients of [Ce/H] and [Ce/Fe] ratios in open clusters, binned by age, were derived for the first time, with d [Ce/H]/ d R GC being negative, while d [Ce/Fe]/ d R GC is positive. [Ce/H] and [Ce/Fe] gradients are approximately constant over time, with the [Ce/Fe] gradient becoming slightly steeper, changing by ∼+0.009 dex kpc −1 Gyr −1 . Both the [Ce/H] and [Ce/Fe] gradients are shifted to lower values of [Ce/H] and [Ce/Fe] for older open clusters. The chemical pattern of Ce in open clusters across the Galactic disk is discussed within the context of s-process yields from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, gigayear time delays in Ce enrichment of the interstellar medium, and the strong dependence of Ce nucleosynthesis on the metallicity of its AGB stellar sources. 
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  3. Abstract Three new cestode species are described from the crocodile shark ( Pseudocarcharias kamoharai ) in Ecuador. All three were examined with light and scanning electron microscopy. The unique combination of morphological features in one of the new species prompted formal investigation of the non-monophyly of Paraorygmatobothrium relative to the morphologically similar genera Doliobothrium , Guidus , Marsupiobothrium , Nandocestus , Orectolobicestus , Ruhnkecestus and Scyphophyllidium . Sequence data generated for part of the 28S rDNA gene were subjected to maximum likelihood (ML) analysis. The resulting tree led to the synonymization of six of these seven genera with Scyphophyllidium , and transfer of their species to the latter genus. With the new species, the number of described members of Scyphophyllidium is now 45. The diagnosis of Scyphophyllidium is revised to accommodate these species. In addition, to expedite future descriptions, eight categories of Scyphophyllidium species are circumscribed, based largely on bothridial features. Scyphophyllidium timvickiorum n. sp. is a category 1 species. Beyond being the smallest category 1 species, it bears, rather than lacks, apical suckers and lacks, rather than bears, strobilar scutes. The two other new species are members of Clistobothrium . Clistobothrium amyae n. sp. differs from its congeners in bothridial shape, elongate cephalic peduncle and tiny size. Clistobothrium gabywalterorum n. sp. differs from the two of its congeners that also possess foliose bothridia in overall size and testis number. Despite their substantial morphological differences, the ML tree indicates they are sister taxa. Both are unique among their congeners in possessing cephalic peduncle spinitriches. The diagnosis of Clistobothrium is revised accordingly. 
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  4. Abstract

    Changes in the circulation of the Southern Ocean are known to have impacted global nutrient, heat, and carbon cycles during the glacial and interglacial periods of the late Pleistocene. Proxy‐based records of these changes deserve continued scrutiny as the implications may be important for constraining future change. A record of authigenic uranium from the South Atlantic has been used to infer changes in deep‐sea oxygenation and organic matter export over the past 0.5 million years. Since sedimentary uranium has the possible complication of remobilization, it is prudent to investigate the behavior of other redox‐sensitive trace metals to confidently interpret temporal changes in oxygenation. Focusing here on the exceptionally long interglacial warm period, Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11, we found concurrent authigenic enrichments of uranium (U) and rhenium (Re) throughout MIS 12 to 10, overall supporting prior interpretations of low‐oxygen periods. However, there are differential responses of Re and U to oxygen changes and some evidence of small‐scale Re remobilization, which may involve differences in molecular‐level reduction mechanisms. Peaks in authigenic manganese (Mn) intervening with peaks in Re and U indicate increases in porewater oxygenation which likely relate to increased Antarctic Bottom Water circulation at the onset of MIS11c and during the peak warmth of the interglacial around 400 ka.

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  6. Abstract

    In the modern Southern Ocean and during the last interglacial period, Marine Isotope Stage 5e, there are observations that point to reduced Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) formation. These reductions are believed to be driven by an increase in the strength of the Southern Ocean density stratification due to Antarctic ice melt‐induced surface water freshening. Any reduction in AABW formation has important implications for global climate as AABW plays a vital role in the cycling of carbon in the world's ocean. The primary question this study seeks to answer is do these AABW reductions occur during any of the other interglacials of the past 470,000 years? To study AABW changes in the paleoceanographic record, we look at changes in the redox record. Newly formed AABW is oxygen‐rich, so any reduction should lead to a decrease in oxygen concentrations in the deep Southern Ocean. The trace element uranium is useful for studying these redox changes as it is enriched in marine sediments under low‐oxygen conditions. When accounting for other factors, such as paleoproductivity, that can also decrease the oxygen concentrations in sedimentary porewater, it is possible to identify changes in AABW using authigenic uranium. The survey conducted by this study found a possible AABW reduction during late Marine Isotope Stage 11 (~397 ka). The cause of this event is less clear than others studied, and we explore the possibilities of ice melt‐induced freshening or a change in the position or strength of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds.

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  7. Abstract The Phase-I trigger readout electronics upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeters enhances thephysics reach of the experiment during the upcoming operation atincreasing Large Hadron Collider luminosities.The new system, installed during the second Large Hadron Collider Long Shutdown,increases the trigger readout granularity by up to a factor of tenas well as its precision and range.Consequently, the background rejection at trigger level is improvedthrough enhanced filtering algorithms utilizing the additional informationfor topological discrimination of electromagnetic and hadronic shower shapes.This paper presents the final designs of the new electronic elements,their custom electronic devices, the proceduresused to validate their proper functioning, and the performance achievedduring the commissioning of this system. 
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  8. Abstract The Pandora Software Development Kit and algorithm libraries provide pattern-recognition logic essential to the reconstruction of particle interactions in liquid argon time projection chamber detectors. Pandora is the primary event reconstruction software used at ProtoDUNE-SP, a prototype for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment far detector. ProtoDUNE-SP, located at CERN, is exposed to a charged-particle test beam. This paper gives an overview of the Pandora reconstruction algorithms and how they have been tailored for use at ProtoDUNE-SP. In complex events with numerous cosmic-ray and beam background particles, the simulated reconstruction and identification efficiency for triggered test-beam particles is above 80% for the majority of particle type and beam momentum combinations. Specifically, simulated 1 GeV/ c charged pions and protons are correctly reconstructed and identified with efficiencies of 86.1 $$\pm 0.6$$ ± 0.6 % and 84.1 $$\pm 0.6$$ ± 0.6 %, respectively. The efficiencies measured for test-beam data are shown to be within 5% of those predicted by the simulation. 
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