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  1. Abstract

    Single flux density measurements at observed-frame submillimeter and millimeter wavelengths are commonly used to probe dust and gas masses in galaxies. In this Letter, we explore the robustness of this method to infer dust mass, focusing on quiescent galaxies, using a series of controlled experiments on four massive halos from the Feedback in Realistic Environments project. Our starting point is four star-forming central galaxies at seven redshifts betweenz= 1.5 andz= 4.5. We generate modified quiescent galaxies that have been quenched for 100 Myr, 500 Myr, or 1 Gyr prior to each of the studied redshifts by reassigning stellar ages. We derive spectral energy distributions for each fiducial and modified galaxy using radiative transfer. We demonstrate that the dust mass inferred is highly dependent on the assumed dust temperature,Tdust, which is often unconstrained observationally. Motivated by recent work on quiescent galaxies that assumedTdust∼ 25 K, we show that the ratio between dust mass and 1.3 mm flux density can be higher than inferred by up to an order of magnitude, due to the considerably lower dust temperatures seen in non-star-forming galaxies. This can lead to an underestimation of dust mass (and, when submillimeter flux density is used as a proxymore »for molecular gas content and gas mass). This underestimation is most severe at higher redshifts, where the observed-frame 1.3 mm flux density probes rest-frame wavelengths far from the Rayleigh–Jeans regime, and hence depends superlinearly on dust temperature. We fit relations between ratios of rest-frame far-infrared flux densities and mass-weighted dust temperature that can be used to constrain dust temperatures from observations and hence derive more reliable dust and molecular gas masses.

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  2. Gendered differences in academic confidence and self-efficacy between men and women are well-documented. In STEM fields and specifically in engineering, such differences have important consequences in that students low on these constructs are often more prone to leave their degree programs. While this evidence base is fairly established, less is known about the extent to which men and women show differences in confidence of team success, or collective efficacy, which may also be consequential in decisions to join and persist in design team experiences, or even to stay in or leave an engineering major, especially for first-year students. In this analysis, we quantitatively investigated gendered differences in confidence of team success and collective efficacy among first-year engineering students working on semester-long design projects in stable teams. Using a software tool built to support equitable teamwork, survey data on team confidence and collective efficacy was collected for these engineering students as well as for students in other courses for the sake of comparison. Three hierarchical linear models were fit to the data from 1,806 students across 31 unique course/term combinations. The results were mixed. In two of these analyses, we identified significant interactions between gender and team confidence. Specifically, men generallymore »reported higher team confidence scores than women throughout the term with women eventually catching up, and team confidence ratings increased for men but not women following a lesson on imposter syndrome. No gendered differences were observed with respect to a collective efficacy scale administered near the middle and end of the term, however. In all cases, the results were consistent across course type (engineering, business, and others).« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  3. This work-in-progress paper reports on the assessment of an intervention on team communication and decision making processes to see whether such an intervention is related to improvement in the rating of equity of idea contributions. A hierarchical linear model was fit to teamwork data from 3,721 students in 40 courses. We find that students’ reports of equitable idea sharing are actually lower after the intervention than before; we hypothesize that the decreased rating might reflect increased student awareness of inequities rather than a true decrease in equitable idea sharing. This pattern held for most gender and racial groups, with the notable exception of non-binary students, who instead reported greater idea equity post-intervention, though we note the small sample size for this group. Finally, we find that decreases in reported idea sharing were largest when students reported the intervention was “highly relevant” to their team yet “not very helpful”.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  4. ABSTRACT The galaxy size–stellar mass and central surface density–stellar mass relationships are fundamental observational constraints on galaxy formation models. However, inferring the physical size of a galaxy from observed stellar emission is non-trivial due to various observational effects, such as the mass-to-light ratio variations that can be caused by non-uniform stellar ages, metallicities, and dust attenuation. Consequently, forward-modelling light-based sizes from simulations is desirable. In this work, we use the skirt  dust radiative transfer code to generate synthetic observations of massive galaxies ($M_{*}\sim 10^{11}\, \rm {M_{\odot }}$ at z = 2, hosted by haloes of mass $M_{\rm {halo}}\sim 10^{12.5}\, \rm {M_{\odot }}$) from high-resolution cosmological zoom-in simulations that form part of the Feedback In Realistic Environments project. The simulations used in this paper include explicit stellar feedback but no active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback. From each mock observation, we infer the effective radius (Re), as well as the stellar mass surface density within this radius and within $1\, \rm {kpc}$ (Σe and Σ1, respectively). We first investigate how well the intrinsic half-mass radius and stellar mass surface density can be inferred from observables. The majority of predicted sizes and surface densities are within a factor of 2 of the intrinsic values.more »We then compare our predictions to the observed size–mass relationship and the Σ1−M⋆ and Σe−M⋆ relationships. At z ≳ 2, the simulated massive galaxies are in general agreement with observational scaling relations. At z ≲ 2, they evolve to become too compact but still star forming, in the stellar mass and redshift regime where many of them should be quenched. Our results suggest that some additional source of feedback, such as AGN-driven outflows, is necessary in order to decrease the central densities of the simulated massive galaxies to bring them into agreement with observations at z ≲ 2.« less
  5. ABSTRACT We present Gemini-S and Spitzer-IRAC optical-through-near-IR observations in the field of the SPT2349-56 proto-cluster at z = 4.3. We detect optical/IR counterparts for only 9 of the 14 submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) previously identified by ALMA in the core of SPT2349-56. In addition, we detect four z ∼ 4 Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) in the 30 arcsec-diameter region surrounding this proto-cluster core. Three of the four LBGs are new systems, while one appears to be a counterpart of one of the nine observed SMGs. We identify a candidate brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) with a stellar mass of $(3.2^{+2.3}_{-1.4})\times 10^{11}$ M⊙. The stellar masses of the eight other SMGs place them on, above, and below the main sequence of star formation at z ≈ 4.5. The cumulative stellar mass for the SPT2349-56 core is at least (12.2 ± 2.8) × 1011 M⊙, a sizeable fraction of the stellar mass in local BCGs, and close to the universal baryon fraction (0.19) relative to the virial mass of the core (1013 M⊙). As all 14 of these SMGs are destined to quickly merge, we conclude that the proto-cluster core has already developed a significant stellar mass at this early stage, comparable to z = 1 BCGs. Importantly, we also findmore »that the SPT2349-56 core structure would be difficult to uncover in optical surveys, with none of the ALMA sources being easily identifiable or constrained through g, r, and i colour selection in deep optical surveys and only a modest overdensity of LBGs over the more extended structure. SPT2349-56 therefore represents a truly dust-obscured phase of a massive cluster core under formation.« less
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  7. Abstract We present the implementation and the first results of cosmic ray (CR) feedback in the Feedback In Realistic Environments (FIRE) simulations. We investigate CR feedback in non-cosmological simulations of dwarf, sub-L⋆ starburst, and L⋆ galaxies with different propagation models, including advection, isotropic and anisotropic diffusion, and streaming along field lines with different transport coefficients. We simulate CR diffusion and streaming simultaneously in galaxies with high resolution, using a two moment method. We forward-model and compare to observations of γ-ray emission from nearby and starburst galaxies. We reproduce the γ-ray observations of dwarf and L⋆ galaxies with constant isotropic diffusion coefficient κ ∼ 3 × 1029 cm2 s−1. Advection-only and streaming-only models produce order-of-magnitude too large γ-ray luminosities in dwarf and L⋆ galaxies. We show that in models that match the γ-ray observations, most CRs escape low-gas-density galaxies (e.g. dwarfs) before significant collisional losses, while starburst galaxies are CR proton calorimeters. While adiabatic losses can be significant, they occur only after CRs escape galaxies, so they are only of secondary importance for γ-ray emissivities. Models where CRs are “trapped” in the star-forming disk have lower star formation efficiency, but these models are ruled out by γ-ray observations. For models with constant κmore »that match the γ-ray observations, CRs form extended halos with scale heights of several kpc to several tens of kpc.« less
  8. ABSTRACT We present the first detailed study of the spatially resolved dust continuum emission of simulated galaxies at 1 < z < 5. We run the radiative transfer code skirt on a sample of submillimetre-bright galaxies drawn from the Feedback In Realistic Environments (FIRE) project. These simulated galaxies reach Milky Way masses by z = 2. Our modelling provides predictions for the full rest-frame far-ultraviolet-to-far-infrared spectral energy distributions of these simulated galaxies, as well as 25-pc resolution maps of their emission across the wavelength spectrum. The derived morphologies are notably different in different wavebands, with the same galaxy often appearing clumpy and extended in the far-ultraviolet yet an ordered spiral at far-infrared wavelengths. The observed-frame 870-$\mu$m half-light radii of our FIRE-2 galaxies are ${\sim} 0.5\rm {-}4\, \rm {kpc}$, consistent with existing ALMA observations of galaxies with similarly high redshifts and stellar masses. In both simulated and observed galaxies, the dust continuum emission is generally more compact than the cold gas and the dust mass, but more extended than the stellar component. The most extreme cases of compact dust emission seem to be driven by particularly compact recent star formation, which generates steep dust temperature gradients. Our results confirm that the spatial extent of the dust continuummore »emission is sensitive to both the dust mass and star formation rate distributions.« less