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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
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  4. We report on the use of extreme ultraviolet (XUV, 30.3 nm) radiation from the Free-electron LASer in Hamburg (FLASH) and visible (Vis, 405 nm) photons from an optical laser to investigate the relaxation and fragmentation dynamics of fluorene ions. The ultrashort laser pulses allow to resolve the molecular processes occurring on the femtosecond timescales. Fluorene is a prototypical small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Through their infrared emission signature, PAHs have been shown to be ubiquitous in the universe, and they are assumed to play an important role in the chemistry of the interstellar medium. Our experiments track the ionization and dissociative ionization products of fluorene through time-of-flight mass spectrometry and velocity-map imaging. Multiple processes involved in the formation of each of the fragment ions are disentangled through analysis of the ion images. The relaxation lifetimes of the excited fluorene monocation and dication obtained through the fragment formation channels are reported to be in the range of a few tens of femtoseconds to a few picoseconds.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 12, 2023
  5. Abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) play an important role in interstellar chemistry and are subject to high energy photons that can induce excitation, ionization, and fragmentation. Previous studies have demonstrated electronic relaxation of parent PAH monocations over 10–100 femtoseconds as a result of beyond-Born-Oppenheimer coupling between the electronic and nuclear dynamics. Here, we investigate three PAH molecules: fluorene, phenanthrene, and pyrene, using ultrafast XUV and IR laser pulses. Simultaneous measurements of the ion yields, ion momenta, and electron momenta as a function of laser pulse delay allow a detailed insight into the various molecular processes. We report relaxation times for the electronically excited PAH * , PAH +* and PAH 2+* states, and show the time-dependent conversion between fragmentation pathways. Additionally, using recoil-frame covariance analysis between ion images, we demonstrate that the dissociation of the PAH 2+ ions favors reaction pathways involving two-body breakup and/or loss of neutral fragments totaling an even number of carbon atoms.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  6. We present a Photo2Building tool to create a plausible 3D model of a building from only a single photograph. Our tool is based on a prior desktop version which, as described in this paper, is converted into a client-server model, with job queuing, web-page support, and support of concurrent usage. The reported cloud-based web-accessible tool can reconstruct a building in 40 seconds on average and costing only 0.60 USD with current pricing. This provides for an extremely scalable and possibly widespread tool for creating building models for use in urban design and planning applications. With the growing impact of rapid urbanization on weather and climate and resource availability, access to such a service is expected to help a wide variety of users such as city planners, urban meteorologists worldwide in the quest to improved prediction of urban weather and designing climate-resilient cities of the future.
  7. We propose a sparse and low-rank tensor regression model to relate a univariate outcome to a feature tensor, in which each unit-rank tensor from the CP decomposition of the coefficient tensor is assumed to be sparse. This structure is both parsimonious and highly interpretable, as it implies that the outcome is related to the features through a few distinct pathways, each of which may only involve subsets of feature dimensions. We take a divide-and-conquer strategy to simplify the task into a set of sparse unit-rank tensor regression problems. To make the computation efficient and scalable, for the unit-rank tensor regression, we propose a stagewise estimation procedure to efficiently trace out its entire solution path. We show that as the step size goes to zero, the stagewise solution paths converge exactly to those of the corresponding regularized regression. The superior performance of our approach is demonstrated on various real-world and synthetic examples.
  8. Parkinson's Disease (PD) is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases that affects tens of millions of Americans. PD is highly progressive and heterogeneous. Quite a few studies have been conducted in recent years on predictive or disease progression modeling of PD using clinical and biomarkers data. Neuroimaging, as another important information source for neurodegenerative disease, has also arisen considerable interests from the PD community. In this paper, we propose a deep learning method based on Graph Convolutional Networks (GCN) for fusing multiple modalities of brain images in relationship prediction which is useful for distinguishing PD cases from controls. On Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) cohort, our approach achieved 0.9537±0.0587 AUC, compared with 0.6443±0.0223 AUC achieved by traditional approaches such as PCA.