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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2025
  2. Abstract

    This paper presents a normalized standard error-based statistical data binning method, termed “bin size index” (BSI), which yields an optimized, objective bin size for constructing a rational histogram to facilitate subsequent deconvolution of multimodal datasets from materials characterization and hence the determination of the underlying probability density functions. Totally ten datasets, including four normally-distributed synthetic ones, three normally-distributed ones on the elasticity of rocks obtained by statistical nanoindentation, and three lognormally-distributed ones on the particle size distributions of flocculated clay suspensions, were used to illustrate the BSI’s concepts and algorithms. While results from the synthetic datasets prove the method’s accuracy and effectiveness, analyses of other real datasets from materials characterization and measurement further demonstrate its rationale, performance, and applicability to practical problems. The BSI method also enables determination of the number of modes via the comparative evaluation of the errors returned from different trial bin sizes. The accuracy and performance of the BSI method are further compared with other widely used binning methods, and the former yields the highest BSI and smallest normalized standard errors. This new method particularly penalizes the overfitting that tends to yield too many pseudo-modes via normalizing the errors by the number of modes hidden in the datasets, and also eliminates the difficulty in specifying criteria for acceptable values of the fitting errors. The advantages and disadvantages of the new method are also discussed.

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  3. Abstract

    Integrated phononics plays an important role in both fundamental physics and technology. Despite great efforts, it remains a challenge to break time-reversal symmetry to achieve topological phases and non-reciprocal devices. Piezomagnetic materials offer an intriguing opportunity as they break time-reversal symmetry intrinsically, without the need for an external magnetic field or an active driving field. Moreover, they are antiferromagnetic, and possibly compatible with superconducting components. Here, we develop a theoretical framework that combines linear elasticity with Maxwell’s equations via piezoelectricity and/or piezomagnetism beyond the commonly adopted quasi-static approximation. Our theory predicts and numerically demonstrates phononic Chern insulators based on piezomagnetism. We further show that the topological phase and chiral edge states in this system can be controlled by the charge doping. Our results exploit a general duality relation between piezoelectric and piezomagnetic systems, which can potentially be generalized to other composite metamaterial systems.

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