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  1. Mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation drive much of the variation in productivity across Earth's terrestrial ecosystems but do not explain variation in gross primary productivity (GPP) or ecosystem respiration (ER) in flowing waters. We document substantial variation in the magnitude and seasonality of GPP and ER across 222 US rivers. In contrast to their terrestrial counterparts, most river ecosystems respire far more carbon than they fix and have less pronounced and consistent seasonality in their metabolic rates. We find that variation in annual solar energy inputs and stability of flows are the primary drivers of GPP and ER across rivers. A classification schema based on these drivers advances river science and informs management. 
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  2. Abstract

    Self‐organized pattern formation is widespread and functionally significant. Scale‐dependent feedbackin space(short‐distance positive feedback coupled with long‐distance negative feedback) has been embraced as an arguably universal mechanism of ecological self‐organization. Recently, intraspecific territorial competition has been proposed as a complementary mechanism contributing to spatial self‐organization in ecology. In geomorphology, regular patterning is also widespread and has often been attributed to competition among geomorphic features. This mechanism has never been integrated into the framework of ecological pattern formation. Using the regularly patterned landscape of Big Cypress National Preserve in South Florida as a case study, we formalize a third mechanism of spatial self‐organization: competition among pattern elements of finite amplitude stabilized by scale‐dependent feedbackin time. Depressions first accelerate their expansion rate via the positive feedback between depression volume and weathering rate. Later negative feedbacks become stronger, and eventually stabilize the size of depressions. While scale‐dependent feedback in time provides a mechanism to stabilize individual depressions, it is the competition among depressions that induces spatial regularity. A relatively smaller depression could have a greater expansion rate than larger ones in its development. Higher weathering rate on the side of a divide toward the smaller depression causes migration of the divide to the larger depression. Consequently, the smaller depression expands its catchment area while the catchment area of the neighboring larger depression contracts, resulting in depressions achieving similar size and distance from each other. The diversity of regular patterns dictates the need to integrate perspectives from multiple disciplines.

     
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  4. Abstract

    Deoxygenation of aquatic ecosystems is a key feature of the Anthropocene. Studies are increasingly reporting low oxygen conditions in rivers and headwater streams even in the absence of high nutrient loads. We examined the frequency of river hypoxia (dissolved oxygen [DO] < 50% saturated in O2) in the North Carolina Piedmont by examining monitoring records collected since the 1960s, and by collecting high‐resolution measurements of DO saturation along a 20 km segment of New Hope Creek. State records reported nearly 11,000 incidences of hypoxia from a total of ~ 140,000 measurements (7.8% over 55 yr). In contrast, our measurements in New Hope Creek suggest that assessing river hypoxia from point measurements is highly problematic. We propose new approaches for evaluating and comparing river oxygen regimes. In a detailed longitudinal survey of DO in May 2018, 31% of measurements over 20 km were hypoxic. Over a 3‐week period, 11 of our 12 sites throughout this segment experienced hypoxia 5%–96% of the time. Interannual comparisons for several long‐term monitoring sites document significant potential for hypoxia even in well‐aerated reaches during particularly warm, low flow periods. Oxygen regimes within this river vary between near continuous hypoxia to near continuous saturation and call into question the binary distinction between lotic and lentic oxygen dynamics with which we tend to categorize and model freshwater ecosystems.

     
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  5. Abstract

    Respiration in streams is controlled by the timing, magnitude, and quality of organic matter (OM) inputs from internal primary production and external fluxes. Here, we estimated the contribution of different OM sources to seasonal, annual, and event‐driven characteristics of whole‐stream ecosystem respiration (ER) using an inverse modeling framework that accounts for possible time‐lags between OM inputs and respiration. We modeled site‐specific, dynamic OM stocks contributing to ER: autochthonous OM from gross primary production (GPP); allochthonous OM delivered during flow events; and seasonal pulses of leaf litter. OM stored in the sediment and dissolved organic matter (DOM) transported during baseflow were modeled as a stable stock contributing to baseline respiration. We applied this modeling framework to five streams with different catchment size, climate, and canopy cover, where multi‐year time series of ER and environmental variables were available. Overall, the model explained between 53% and 74% of observed ER dynamics. Respiration of autochthonous OM tracked seasonal peaks in GPP in spring or summer. Increases in ER were often associated with high‐flow events. Respiration associated with litter inputs was larger in smaller streams. Time lags between leaf inputs and respiration were longer than for other OM sources, likely due to lower biological reactivity. Model estimates of source‐specific ER and OM stocks compared well with existing measures of OM stocks, inputs, and respiration or decomposition. Our modeling approach has the potential to expand the scale of comparative analyses of OM dynamics within and among freshwater ecosystems.

     
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  6. Abstract

    Sea‐level dynamics, sediment availability, and marine energy are critical drivers of coastal wetland formation and persistence, but their roles as continental‐scale drivers remain unknown. We evaluated the timing and spatial variability of wetland formation from new and existing cores collected along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. Most basal peat ages occurred after sea‐level rise slowed (after ~4,000 years before present), but predominance of sea‐level rise studies may skew age estimates toward older sites. Near‐coastal sites tended to be younger, indicating creation of wetlands through basin infilling and overwash events. Age distributions differed among regions, with younger wetlands in the northeast and southeast corresponding to European colonization and deforestation. Across all cores, wetland age correlated strongly with basal peat depth. Marsh age elucidates the complex interactions between sea‐level rise, sediment supply, and geomorphic setting in determining timing and location of marsh formation and future wetland persistence.

     
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  7. Abstract

    Macrosystem‐scale research is supported by many ecological networks of people, infrastructure, and data. However, no network is sufficient to address all macrosystems ecology research questions, and there is much to be gained by conducting research and sharing resources across multiple networks. Unfortunately, conducting macrosystem research across networks is challenging due to the diversity of expertise and skills required, as well as issues related to data discoverability, veracity, and interoperability. The ecological and environmental science community could substantially benefit from networking existing networks to leverage past research investments and spur new collaborations. Here, we describe the need for a “network of networks” (NoN) approach to macrosystems ecological research and articulate both the challenges and potential benefits associated with such an effort. We describe the challenges brought by rapid increases in the volume, velocity, and variety of “big data” ecology and highlight how a NoN could build on the successes and creativity within component networks, while also recognizing and improving upon past failures. We argue that a NoN approach requires careful planning to ensure that it is accessible and inclusive, incorporates multimodal communications and ways to interact, supports the creation, testing, and promulgation of community standards, and ensures individuals and groups receive appropriate credit for their contributions. Additionally, a NoN must recognize important trade‐offs in network architecture, including how the degree of centralization of people, infrastructure, and data influence network scalability and creativity. If implemented carefully and thoughtfully, a NoN has the potential to substantially advance our understanding of ecological processes, characteristics, and trajectories across broad spatial and temporal scales in an efficient, inclusive, and equitable manner.

     
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  8. Abstract

    The conversion of native ecosystems to residential ecosystems dominated by lawns has been a prevailing land‐use change in the United States over the past 70 years. Similar development patterns and management of residential ecosystems cause many characteristics of residential ecosystems to be more similar to each other across broad continental gradients than that of former native ecosystems. For instance, similar lawn management by irrigation and fertilizer applications has the potential to influence soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools and processes. We evaluated the mean and variability of total soil C and N stocks, potential net N mineralization and nitrification, soil nitrite (NO2)/nitrate (NO3) and ammonium (NH4+) pools, microbial biomass C and N content, microbial respiration, bulk density, soil pH, and moisture content in residential lawns and native ecosystems in six metropolitan areas across a broad climatic gradient in the United States: Baltimore, MD (BAL); Boston, MA (BOS); Los Angeles, CA (LAX); Miami, FL (MIA); Minneapolis–St. Paul, MN (MSP); and Phoenix, AZ (PHX). We observed evidence of higher N cycling in lawn soils, including significant increases in soil NO2/NO3, microbial N pools, and potential net nitrification, and significant decreases in NH4+pools. Self‐reported yard fertilizer application in the previous year was linked with increased NO2/ NO3content and decreases in total soil N and C content. Self‐reported irrigation in the previous year was associated with decreases in potential net mineralization and potential net nitrification and with increases in bulk density and pH. Residential topsoil had higher total soil C than native topsoil, and microbial biomass C was markedly higher in residential topsoil in the two driest cities (LAX and PHX). Coefficients of variation for most biogeochemical metrics were higher in native soils than in residential soils across all cities, suggesting that residential development homogenizes soil properties and processes at the continental scale.

     
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