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  1. There have been numerous efforts documenting the effects of open science in existing papers; however, these efforts typically only consider the author's analyses and supplemental materials from the papers. While understanding the current rate of open science adoption is important, it is also vital that we explore the factors that may encourage such adoption. One such factor may be publishing organizations setting open science requirements for submitted articles: encouraging researchers to adopt more rigorous reporting and research practices. For example, within the education technology discipline, theACM Conference on Learning @ Scale (L@S) has been promoting open science practices since 2018 through a Call For Papers statement. The purpose of this study was to replicate previous papers within the proceedings of L@S and compare the degree of open science adoption and robust reproducibility practices to other conferences in education technology without a statement on open science. Specifically, we examined 93 papers and documented the open science practices used. We then attempted to reproduce the results with invitation from authors to bolster the chance of success. Finally, we compared the overall adoption rates to those from other conferences in education technology. Although the overall responses to the survey were low, our cursory review suggests that researchers at L@S might be more familiar with open science practices compared to the researchers who published in the International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) and the International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM): 13 of 28 AIED and EDM responses were unfamiliar with preregistrations and 7 unfamiliar with preprints, while only 2 of 7 L@S responses were unfamiliar with preregistrations and 0 with preprints. The overall adoption of open science practices at L@S was much lower with only 1% of papers providing open data, 5% providing open materials, and no papers had a preregistration. All openly accessible work can be found in an Open Science Framework project. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 20, 2024
  2. Solving mathematical problems is cognitively complex, involving strategy formulation, solution development, and the application of learned concepts. However, gaps in students' knowledge or weakly grasped concepts can lead to errors. Teachers play a crucial role in predicting and addressing these difficulties, which directly influence learning outcomes. However, preemptively identifying misconceptions leading to errors can be challenging. This study leverages historical data to assist teachers in recognizing common errors and addressing gaps in knowledge through feedback. We present a longitudinal analysis of incorrect answers from the 2015-2020 academic years on two curricula, Illustrative Math and EngageNY, for grades 6, 7, and 8. We find consistent errors across 5 years despite varying student and teacher populations. Based on these Common Wrong Answers (CWAs), we designed a crowdsourcing platform for teachers to provide Common Wrong Answer Feedback (CWAF). This paper reports on an in vivo randomized study testing the effectiveness of CWAFs in two scenarios: next-problem-correctness within-skill and next-problem-correctness within-assignment, regardless of the skill. We find that receiving CWAF leads to a significant increase in correctness for consecutive problems within-skill. However, the effect was not significant for all consecutive problems within-assignment, irrespective of the associated skill. This paper investigates the potential of scalable approaches in identifying Common Wrong Answers (CWAs) and how the use of crowdsourced CWAFs can enhance student learning through remediation. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 20, 2024
  3. Abstract

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) admit unconfounded design-based inference – randomization largely justifies the assumptions underlying statistical effect estimates – but often have limited sample sizes. However, researchers may have access to big observational data on covariates and outcomes from RCT nonparticipants. For example, data from A/B tests conducted within an educational technology platform exist alongside historical observational data drawn from student logs. We outline a design-based approach to using such observational data for variance reduction in RCTs. First, we use the observational data to train a machine learning algorithm predicting potential outcomes using covariates and then use that algorithm to generate predictions for RCT participants. Then, we use those predictions, perhaps alongside other covariates, to adjust causal effect estimates with a flexible, design-based covariate-adjustment routine. In this way, there is no danger of biases from the observational data leaking into the experimental estimates, which are guaranteed to be exactly unbiased regardless of whether the machine learning models are “correct” in any sense or whether the observational samples closely resemble RCT samples. We demonstrate the method in analyzing 33 randomized A/B tests and show that it decreases standard errors relative to other estimators, sometimes substantially.

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  4. The development and application of deep learning method- ologies has grown within educational contexts in recent years. Perhaps attributable, in part, to the large amount of data that is made avail- able through the adoption of computer-based learning systems in class- rooms and larger-scale MOOC platforms, many educational researchers are leveraging a wide range of emerging deep learning approaches to study learning and student behavior in various capacities. Variations of recurrent neural networks, for example, have been used to not only pre- dict learning outcomes but also to study sequential and temporal trends in student data; it is commonly believed that they are able to learn high- dimensional representations of learning and behavioral constructs over time, such as the evolution of a students’ knowledge state while working through assigned content. Recent works, however, have started to dis- pute this belief, instead finding that it may be the model’s complexity that leads to improved performance in many prediction tasks and that these methods may not inherently learn these temporal representations through model training. In this work, we explore these claims further in the context of detectors of student affect as well as expanding on exist- ing work that explored benchmarks in knowledge tracing. Specifically, we observe how well trained models perform compared to deep learning networks where training is applied only to the output layer. While the highest results of prior works utilizing trained recurrent models are found to be superior, the application of our untrained-versions perform compa- rably well, outperforming even previous non-deep learning approaches. 
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  5. As computer-based learning platforms have become ubiq- uitous, there is a growing need to better support teachers. Particularly in mathematics, teachers often rely on open- ended questions to assess students’ understanding. While prior works focusing on the development of automated open- ended work assessments have demonstrated their potential, many of those methods require large amounts of student data to make reliable estimates. We explore whether a prob- lem specific automated scoring model could benefit from auxiliary data collected from similar problems to address this “cold start” problem. We examine factors such as sam- ple size and the magnitude of similarity of utilized problem data. We find the use of data from similar problems not only provides benefits to improve predictive performance by in- creasing sample size, but also leads to greater overall model performance than using data solely from the original prob- lem when sample size is held constant. 
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  6. Prior works have led to the development and application of automated assessment methods that leverage machine learning and nat- ural language processing. The performance of these methods have often been reported as being positive, but other prior works have identified aspects on which they may be improved. Particularly in the context of mathematics, the presence of non-linguistic characters and expressions have been identified to contribute to observed model error. In this paper, we build upon this prior work by observing a developed automated as- sessment model for open-response questions in mathematics. We develop a new approach which we call the “Math Term Frequency” (MTF) model to address this issue caused by the presence of non-linguistic terms and ensemble it with the previously-developed assessment model. We observe that the inclusion of this approach notably improves model performance, and present an example of practice of how error analyses can be leveraged to address model limitations. 
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  7. Abstract Background

    Teachers often rely on the use of open‐ended questions to assess students' conceptual understanding of assigned content. Particularly in the context of mathematics; teachers use these types of questions to gain insight into the processes and strategies adopted by students in solving mathematical problems beyond what is possible through more close‐ended problem types. While these types of problems are valuable to teachers, the variation in student responses to these questions makes it difficult, and time‐consuming, to evaluate and provide directed feedback. It is a well‐studied concept that feedback, both in terms of a numeric score but more importantly in the form of teacher‐authored comments, can help guide students as to how to improve, leading to increased learning. It is for this reason that teachers need better support not only for assessing students' work but also in providing meaningful and directed feedback to students.


    In this paper, we seek to develop, evaluate, and examine machine learning models that support automated open response assessment and feedback.


    We build upon the prior research in the automatic assessment of student responses to open‐ended problems and introduce a novel approach that leverages student log data combined with machine learning and natural language processing methods. Utilizing sentence‐level semantic representations of student responses to open‐ended questions, we propose a collaborative filtering‐based approach to both predict student scores as well as recommend appropriate feedback messages for teachers to send to their students.

    Results and Conclusion

    We find that our method outperforms previously published benchmarks across three different metrics for the task of predicting student performance. Through an error analysis, we identify several areas where future works may be able to improve upon our approach.

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    Similar content has tremendous utility in classroom and online learning environments. For example, similar content can be used to combat cheating, track students’ learning over time, and model students’ latent knowledge. These different use cases for similar content all rely on different notions of similarity, which make it difficult to determine contents’ similarities. Crowdsourcing is an effective way to identify similar content in a variety of situations by providing workers with guidelines on how to identify similar content for a particular use case. However, crowdsourced opinions are rarely homogeneous and therefore must be aggregated into what is most likely the truth. This work presents the Dynamically Weighted Majority Vote method. A novel algorithm that combines aggregating workers’ crowdsourced opinions with estimating the reliability of each worker. This method was compared to the traditional majority vote method in both a simulation study and an empirical study, in which opinions on seventh grade mathematics problems’ similarity were crowdsourced from middle school math teachers and college students. In both the simulation and the empirical study the Dynamically Weighted Majority Vote method outperformed the traditional majority vote method, suggesting that this method should be used instead of majority vote in future crowdsourcing endeavors. 
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