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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 19, 2023
  2. Abstract

    Nano-optic imagers that modulate light at sub-wavelength scales could enable new applications in diverse domains ranging from robotics to medicine. Although metasurface optics offer a path to such ultra-small imagers, existing methods have achieved image quality far worse than bulky refractive alternatives, fundamentally limited by aberrations at large apertures and low f-numbers. In this work, we close this performance gap by introducing a neural nano-optics imager. We devise a fully differentiable learning framework that learns a metasurface physical structure in conjunction with a neural feature-based image reconstruction algorithm. Experimentally validating the proposed method, we achieve an order of magnitude lower reconstruction error than existing approaches. As such, we present a high-quality, nano-optic imager that combines the widest field-of-view for full-color metasurface operation while simultaneously achieving the largest demonstrated aperture of 0.5 mm at an f-number of 2.

  3. Most modern commodity imaging systems we use directly for photography—or indirectly rely on for downstream applications—employ optical systems of multiple lenses that must balance deviations from perfect optics, manufacturing constraints, tolerances, cost, and footprint. Although optical designs often have complex interactions with downstream image processing or analysis tasks, today’s compound optics are designed in isolation from these interactions. Existing optical design tools aim to minimize optical aberrations, such as deviations from Gauss’ linear model of optics, instead of application-specific losses, precluding joint optimization with hardware image signal processing (ISP) and highly parameterized neural network processing. In this article, we propose an optimization method for compound optics that lifts these limitations. We optimize entire lens systems jointly with hardware and software image processing pipelines, downstream neural network processing, and application-specific end-to-end losses. To this end, we propose a learned, differentiable forward model for compound optics and an alternating proximal optimization method that handles function compositions with highly varying parameter dimensions for optics, hardware ISP, and neural nets. Our method integrates seamlessly atop existing optical design tools, such as Zemax . We can thus assess our method across many camera system designs and end-to-end applications. We validate our approach in an automotivemore »camera optics setting—together with hardware ISP post processing and detection—outperforming classical optics designs for automotive object detection and traffic light state detection. For human viewing tasks, we optimize optics and processing pipelines for dynamic outdoor scenarios and dynamic low-light imaging. We outperform existing compartmentalized design or fine-tuning methods qualitatively and quantitatively, across all domain-specific applications tested.« less
  4. Holography has demonstrated potential to achieve a wide field of view, focus supporting, optical see-through augmented reality display in an eyeglasses form factor. Although phase modulating spatial light modulators are becoming available, the phase-only hologram generation algorithms are still imprecise resulting in severe artifacts in the reconstructed imagery. Since the holographic phase retrieval problem is non-linear and non-convex and computationally expensive with the solutions being non-unique, the existing methods make several assumptions to make the phase-only hologram computation tractable. In this work, we deviate from any such approximations and solve the holographic phase retrieval problem as a quadratic problem using complex Wirtinger gradients and standard first-order optimization methods. Our approach results in high-quality phase hologram generation with at least an order of magnitude improvement over existing state-of-the-art approaches.
  5. In this work, we address the lack of 3D understanding of generative neural networks by introducing a persistent 3D feature embedding for view synthesis. To this end, we propose DeepVoxels, a learned representation that encodes the view-dependent appearance of a 3D scene without having to explicitly model its geometry. At its core, our approach is based on a Cartesian 3D grid of persistent embedded features that learn to make use of the underlying 3D scene structure. Our approach combines insights from 3D geometric computer vision with recent advances in learning image-to-image mappings based on adversarial loss functions. DeepVoxels is supervised, without requiring a 3D reconstruction of the scene, using a 2D re-rendering loss and enforces perspective and multi-view geometry in a principled manner. We apply our persistent 3D scene representation to the problem of novel view synthesis demonstrating high-quality results for a variety of challenging scenes.