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Small-Scale Geochemical Heterogeneities and Seasonal Variation of Iron and Sulfide in Salt Marshes Revealed by Two-Dimensional SensorsLoss of tidal wetlands is a world-wide phenomenon. Many factors may contribute to such loss, but among them are geochemical stressors such as exposure of the marsh plants to elevated levels on hydrogen sulfide in the pore water of the marsh peat. Here we report the results of a study of the geochemistry of iron and sulfide at different seasons in unrestored (JoCo) and partially restored (Big Egg) salt marshes in Jamaica Bay, a highly urbanized estuary in New York City where the loss of salt marsh area has accelerated in recent years. The spatial and temporal 2-dimensional distribution patterns of dissolved Fe 2+ and H 2 S in salt marshes were in situ mapped with high resolution planar sensors for the first time. The vertical profiles of Fe 2+ and hydrogen sulfide, as well as related solutes and redox potentials in marsh were also evaluated by sampling the pore water at discrete depths. Sediment cores were collected at various seasons and the solid phase Fe, S, N, C, and chromium reducible sulfide in marsh peat at discrete depths were further investigated in order to study Fe and S cycles, and their relationship to the organic matter cycling at differentmore »
Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 20, 2023
Electrogenic cable bacteria can couple spatially separated redox reaction zones in marine sediments using multicellular filaments as electron conductors. Reported as generally absent from disturbed sediments, we have found subsurface cable aggregations associated with tubes of the parchment worm Chaetopterus variopedatus in otherwise intensely bioturbated deposits. Cable bacteria tap into tubes, which act as oxygenated conduits, creating a three-dimensional conducting network extending decimeters into sulfidic deposits. By elevating pH, promoting Mn, Fe-oxide precipitation in tube linings, and depleting S around tubes, they enhance tube preservation and favorable biogeochemical conditions within the tube. The presence of disseminated filaments a few cells in length away from oxygenated interfaces and the reported ability of cable bacteria to use a range of redox reaction couples suggest that these microbes are ubiquitous facultative opportunists and that long filaments are an end-member morphological adaptation to relatively stable redox domains.