skip to main content


Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Heintz, K. E."

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Abstract

    We present the first X-ray census of fast radio burst (FRB) host galaxies to conduct the deepest search for active galactic nuclei (AGN) and X-ray counterparts to date. Our sample includes seven well-localized FRBs with unambiguous host associations and existing deep Chandra observations, including two events for which we present new observations. We find evidence for AGN in two FRB host galaxies based on the presence of X-ray emission coincident with their centers, including the detection of a luminous (LX≈ 5 × 1042erg s−1) X-ray source at the nucleus of FRB 20190608B’s host, for which we infer an SMBH mass ofMBH∼ 108Mand an Eddington ratioLbol/LEdd≈ 0.02, characteristic of geometrically thin disks in Seyfert galaxies. We also report nebular emission-line fluxes for 24 highly secure FRB hosts (including 10 hosts for the first time), and assess their placement on a BPT diagram, finding that FRB hosts trace the underlying galaxy population. We further find that the hosts of repeating FRBs are not confined to the star-forming locus, contrary to previous findings. Finally, we place constraints on associated X-ray counterparts to FRBs in the context of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), and find that existing X-ray limits for FRBs rule out ULXs brighter thanLX≳ 1040erg s−1. Leveraging the CHIME/FRB catalog and existing ULX catalogs, we search for spatially coincident ULX–FRB pairs. We identify a total of 28 ULXs spatially coincident with the localization regions for 17 FRBs, but find that the DM-inferred redshifts for the FRBs are inconsistent with the ULX redshifts, disfavoring an association between these specific ULX–FRB pairs.

     
    more » « less
  2. ABSTRACT

    We constrain the Hubble constant H0 using Fast Radio Burst (FRB) observations from the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) and Murriyang (Parkes) radio telescopes. We use the redshift-dispersion measure (‘Macquart’) relationship, accounting for the intrinsic luminosity function, cosmological gas distribution, population evolution, host galaxy contributions to the dispersion measure (DMhost), and observational biases due to burst duration and telescope beamshape. Using an updated sample of 16 ASKAP FRBs detected by the Commensal Real-time ASKAP Fast Transients (CRAFT) Survey and localized to their host galaxies, and 60 unlocalized FRBs from Parkes and ASKAP, our best-fitting value of H0 is calculated to be $73_{-8}^{+12}$ km s−1 Mpc−1. Uncertainties in FRB energetics and DMhost produce larger uncertainties in the inferred value of H0 compared to previous FRB-based estimates. Using a prior on H0 covering the 67–74 km s−1 Mpc−1 range, we estimate a median ${\rm DM}_{\rm host}= 186_{-48}^{+59}\,{\rm pc \, cm^{-3}}$, exceeding previous estimates. We confirm that the FRB population evolves with redshift similarly to the star-formation rate. We use a Schechter luminosity function to constrain the maximum FRB energy to be log10Emax$=41.26_{-0.22}^{+0.27}$ erg assuming a characteristic FRB emission bandwidth of 1 GHz at 1.3 GHz, and the cumulative luminosity index to be $\gamma =-0.95_{-0.15}^{+0.18}$. We demonstrate with a sample of 100 mock FRBs that H0 can be measured with an uncertainty of ±2.5 km s−1 Mpc−1, demonstrating the potential for clarifying the Hubble tension with an upgraded ASKAP FRB search system. Last, we explore a range of sample and selection biases that affect FRB analyses.

     
    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    We investigate the fine-structure [Cii] line at 158μm as a molecular gas tracer by analyzing the relationship between molecular gas mass (Mmol) and [Cii] line luminosity (L[CII]) in 11,125z≃ 6 star-forming, main-sequence galaxies from thesimbasimulations, with line emission modeled by the Simulator of Galaxy Millimeter/Submillimeter Emission. Though most (∼50%–100%) of the gas mass in our simulations is ionized, the bulk (>50%) of the [Cii] emission comes from the molecular phase. We find a sublinear (slope 0.78 ± 0.01)logL[CII]logMmolrelation, in contrast with the linear relation derived from observational samples of more massive, metal-rich galaxies atz≲ 6. We derive a median [Cii]-to-Mmolconversion factor ofα[CII]≃ 18M/L. This is lower than the average value of ≃30M/Lderived from observations, which we attribute to lower gas-phase metallicities in our simulations. Thus, a lower, luminosity-dependent conversion factor must be applied when inferring molecular gas masses from [Cii] observations of low-mass galaxies. For our simulations, [Cii] is a better tracer of the molecular gas than COJ= 1–0, especially at the lowest metallicities, where much of the gas isCO-dark. We find thatL[CII]is more tightly correlated withMmolthan with star formation rate (SFR), and both thelogL[CII]logMmolandlogL[CII]logSFRrelations arise from the Kennicutt–Schmidt relation. Our findings suggest thatL[CII]is a promising tracer of the molecular gas at the earliest cosmic epochs.

     
    more » « less
  4. Context. Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are extremely energetic pulses of millisecond duration and unknown origin. To understand the phenomenon that emits these pulses, targeted and un-targeted searches have been performed for multiwavelength counterparts, including the optical. Aims. The objective of this work is to search for optical transients at the positions of eight well-localized (< 1″) FRBs after the arrival of the burst on different timescales (typically at one day, several months, and one year after FRB detection). We then compare this with known optical light curves to constrain progenitor models. Methods. We used the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) network to promptly take images with its network of 23 telescopes working around the world. We used a template subtraction technique to analyze all the images collected at differing epochs. We have divided the difference images into two groups: In one group we use the image of the last epoch as a template, and in the other group we use the image of the first epoch as a template. We then searched for optical transients at the localizations of the FRBs in the template subtracted images. Results. We have found no optical transients and have therefore set limiting magnitudes to the optical counterparts. Typical limits in apparent and absolute magnitudes for our LCOGT data are ∼22 and −19 mag in the r band, respectively. We have compared our limiting magnitudes with light curves of super-luminous supernovae (SLSNe), Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), supernovae associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRB-SNe), a kilonova, and tidal disruption events (TDEs). Conclusions. Assuming that the FRB emission coincides with the time of explosion of these transients, we rule out associations with SLSNe (at the ∼99.9% confidence level) and the brightest subtypes of SNe Ia, GRB-SNe, and TDEs (at a similar confidence level). However, we cannot exclude scenarios where FRBs are directly associated with the faintest of these subtypes or with kilonovae. 
    more » « less
  5. Abstract We present James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the afterglow of GRB 221009A, the brightest gamma-ray burst (GRB) ever observed. This includes the first mid-IR spectra of any GRB, obtained with JWST/Near Infrared Spectrograph (0.6–5.5 micron) and Mid-Infrared Instrument (5–12 micron), 12 days after the burst. Assuming that the intrinsic spectral slope is a single power law, with F ν ∝ ν − β , we obtain β ≈ 0.35, modified by substantial dust extinction with A V = 4.9. This suggests extinction above the notional Galactic value, possibly due to patchy extinction within the Milky Way or dust in the GRB host galaxy. It further implies that the X-ray and optical/IR regimes are not on the same segment of the synchrotron spectrum of the afterglow. If the cooling break lies between the X-ray and optical/IR, then the temporal decay rates would only match a post-jet-break model, with electron index p < 2, and with the jet expanding into a uniform ISM medium. The shape of the JWST spectrum is near-identical in the optical/near-IR to X-SHOOTER spectroscopy obtained at 0.5 days and to later time observations with HST. The lack of spectral evolution suggests that any accompanying supernova (SN) is either substantially fainter or bluer than SN 1998bw, the proto-type GRB-SN. Our HST observations also reveal a disk-like host galaxy, viewed close to edge-on, that further complicates the isolation of any SN component. The host galaxy appears rather typical among long-GRB hosts and suggests that the extreme properties of GRB 221009A are not directly tied to its galaxy-scale environment. 
    more » « less
  6. We present a detailed follow-up of the very energetic GRB 210905A at a high redshift of z  = 6.312 and its luminous X-ray and optical afterglow. Following the detection by Swift and Konus- Wind , we obtained a photometric and spectroscopic follow-up in the optical and near-infrared (NIR), covering both the prompt and afterglow emission from a few minutes up to 20 Ms after burst. With an isotropic gamma-ray energy release of E iso = 1.27 −0.19 +0.20 × 10 54 erg, GRB 210905A lies in the top ∼7% of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in the Konus- Wind catalogue in terms of energy released. Its afterglow is among the most luminous ever observed, and, in particular, it is one of the most luminous in the optical at t  ≳ 0.5 d in the rest frame. The afterglow starts with a shallow evolution that can be explained by energy injection, and it is followed by a steeper decay, while the spectral energy distribution is in agreement with slow cooling in a constant-density environment within the standard fireball theory. A jet break at ∼46.2 ± 16.3 d (6.3 ± 2.2 d rest-frame) has been observed in the X-ray light curve; however, it is hidden in the H band due to a constant contribution from the host galaxy and potentially from a foreground intervening galaxy. In particular, the host galaxy is only the fourth GRB host at z  > 6 known to date. By assuming a number density n  = 1 cm −3 and an efficiency η  = 0.2, we derived a half-opening angle of 8.4 ° ±1.0°, which is the highest ever measured for a z  ≳ 6 burst, but within the range covered by closer events. The resulting collimation-corrected gamma-ray energy release of ≃1 × 10 52 erg is also among the highest ever measured. The moderately large half-opening angle argues against recent claims of an inverse dependence of the half-opening angle on the redshift. The total jet energy is likely too large to be sustained by a standard magnetar, and it suggests that the central engine of this burst was a newly formed black hole. Despite the outstanding energetics and luminosity of both GRB 210905A and its afterglow, we demonstrate that they are consistent within 2 σ with those of less distant bursts, indicating that the powering mechanisms and progenitors do not evolve significantly with redshift. 
    more » « less