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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 28, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2025
  3. Interactions of quantum materials with strong laser fields can induce exotic non-equilibrium electronic states. Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides, a new class of direct-gap semiconductors with prominent quantum confinement, offer exceptional opportunities for the Floquet engineering of excitons, which are quasiparticle electron–hole correlated states8. Strong-field driving has the potential to achieve enhanced control of the electronic band structure and thus the possibility of opening a new realm of exciton light–matter interactions. However, a full characterization of strong-field driven exciton dynamics has been difficult. Here we use mid-infrared laser pulses below the optical bandgap to excite monolayer tungsten disulfide and demonstrate strong-field light dressing of excitons in excess of a hundred millielectronvolts. Our high-sensitivity transient absorption spectroscopy further reveals the formation of a virtual absorption feature below the 1s-exciton resonance, which we assign to a light-dressed sideband from the dark 2p-exciton state. Quantum-mechanical simulations substantiate the experimental results and enable us to retrieve real-space movies of the exciton dynamics. This study advances our understanding of the exciton dynamics in the strong-field regime, showing the possibility of harnessing ultrafast, strong-field phenomena in device applications of two-dimensional materials. 
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  4. Electromodulation spectroscopy enables optical absorption characterization of interlayer excitons in two-dimensional heterostructures. 
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  5. Abstract Strong optical nonlinearities play a central role in realizing quantum photonic technologies. Exciton-polaritons, which result from the hybridization of material excitations and cavity photons, are an attractive candidate to realize such nonlinearities. While the interaction between ground state excitons generates a notable optical nonlinearity, the strength of such interactions is generally not sufficient to reach the regime of quantum nonlinear optics. Excited states, however, feature enhanced interactions and therefore hold promise for accessing the quantum domain of single-photon nonlinearities. Here we demonstrate the formation of exciton-polaritons using excited excitonic states in monolayer tungsten diselenide (WSe 2 ) embedded in a microcavity. The realized excited-state polaritons exhibit an enhanced nonlinear response ∼ $${g}_{{pol}-{pol}}^{2s} \sim 46.4\pm 13.9\,\mu {eV}\mu {m}^{2}$$ g p o l − p o l 2 s ~ 46.4 ± 13.9 μ e V μ m 2 which is ∼4.6 times that for the ground-state exciton. The demonstration of enhanced nonlinear response from excited exciton-polaritons presents the potential of generating strong exciton-polariton interactions, a necessary building block for solid-state quantum photonic technologies. 
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    An exciton, a two-body composite quasiparticle formed of an electron and hole, is a fundamental optical excitation in condensed matter systems. Since its discovery nearly a century ago, a measurement of the excitonic wave function has remained beyond experimental reach. Here, we directly image the excitonic wave function in reciprocal space by measuring the momentum distribution of electrons photoemitted from excitons in monolayer tungsten diselenide. By transforming to real space, we obtain a visual of the distribution of the electron around the hole in an exciton. Further, by also resolving the energy coordinate, we confirm the elusive theoretical prediction that the photoemitted electron exhibits an inverted energy-momentum dispersion relationship reflecting the valence band where the partner hole remains, rather than that of conduction band states of the electron. 
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