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Creators/Authors contains: "Hemmer, Philip R."

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  1. Development of a simple, label-free screening technique capable of precisely and directly sensing interaction-in-solution over a size range from small molecules to large proteins such as antibodies could offer an important tool for researchers and pharmaceutical companies in the field of drug development. In this work, we present a thermostable Raman interaction profiling (TRIP) technique that facilitates low-concentration and low-dose screening of binding between protein and ligand in physiologically relevant conditions. TRIP was applied to eight protein–ligand systems, and produced reproducible high-resolution Raman measurements, which were analyzed by principal component analysis. TRIP was able to resolve time-depending binding between 2,4-dinitrophenol and transthyretin, and analyze biologically relevant SARS-CoV-2 spike-antibody interactions. Mixtures of the spike receptor–binding domain with neutralizing, nonbinding, or binding but nonneutralizing antibodies revealed distinct and reproducible Raman signals. TRIP holds promise for the future developments of high-throughput drug screening and real-time binding measurements between protein and drug.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 25, 2024
  2. Abstract In a viral pandemic, a few important tests are required for successful containment of the virus and reduction in severity of the infection. Among those tests, a test for the neutralizing ability of an antibody is crucial for assessment of population immunity gained through vaccination, and to test therapeutic value of antibodies made to counter the infections. Here, we report a sensitive technique to detect the relative neutralizing strength of various antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. We used bright, photostable, background-free, fluorescent upconversion nanoparticles conjugated with SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain as a phantom virion. A glass bottom plate coated with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) protein imitates the target cells. When no neutralizing IgG antibody was present in the sample, the particles would bind to the ACE-2 with high affinity. In contrast, a neutralizing antibody can prevent particle attachment to the ACE-2-coated substrate. A prototype system consisting of a custom-made confocal microscope was used to quantify particle attachment to the substrate. The sensitivity of this assay can reach 4.0 ng/ml and the dynamic range is from 1.0 ng/ml to 3.2  $$\upmu$$ μ g/ml. This is to be compared to 19 ng/ml sensitivity of commercially available kits.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  3. Nitrogen vacancy diamonds have emerged as sensitive solid-state magnetic field sensors capable of producing diffraction limited and sub-diffraction field images. Here, for the first time, to our knowledge, we extend those measurements to high-speed imaging, which can be readily applied to analyze currents and magnetic field dynamics in circuits on a microscopic scale. To overcome detector acquisition rate limitations, we designed an optical streaking nitrogen vacancy microscope to acquire two-dimensional spatiotemporal kymograms. We demonstrate magnetic field wave imaging with micro-scale spatial extent and400  μstemporal resolution. In validating this system, we detected magnetic fields down to 10 μT for 40 Hz magnetic fields using single-shot imaging and captured the spatial transit of an electromagnetic needle at streak rates as high as 110 μm/ms. This design has the capability to be readily extended to full 3D video acquisition by utilizing compressed sensing techniques and a potential for further improvement of spatial resolution, acquisition speed, and sensitivity. The device opens opportunities to many potential applications where transient magnetic events can be isolated to a single spatial axis, such as acquiring spatially propagating action potentials for brain imaging and remotely interrogating integrated circuits.