skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Henning, Th."

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. We performed a comprehensive demographic study of the CO extent relative to dust of the disk population in the Lupus clouds in order to find indications of dust evolution and possible correlations with other disk properties. We increased the number of disks of the region with measured R CO and R dust from observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array to 42, based on the gas emission in the 12 CO J = 2−1 rotational transition and large dust grains emission at ~0.89 mm. The CO integrated emission map is modeled with an elliptical Gaussian or Nuker function, depending onmore »the quantified residuals; the continuum is fit to a Nuker profile from interferometric modeling. The CO and dust sizes, namely the radii enclosing a certain fraction of the respective total flux (e.g., R 68% ), are inferred from the modeling. The CO emission is more extended than the dust continuum, with a R 68% CO / R 68% dust median value of 2.5, for the entire population and for a subsample with high completeness. Six disks, around 15% of the Lupus disk population, have a size ratio above 4. Based on thermo-chemical modeling, this value can only be explained if the disk has undergone grain growth and radial drift. These disks do not have unusual properties, and their properties spread across the population’s ranges of stellar mass ( M ⋆ ), disk mass ( M disk ), CO and dust sizes ( R CO , R dust ), and mass accretion of the entire population. We searched for correlations between the size ratio and M ⋆ , M disk , R CO , and R dust : only a weak monotonic anticorrelation with the R dust is found, which would imply that dust evolution is more prominent in more compact dusty disks. The lack of strong correlations is remarkable: the sample covers a wide range of stellar and disk properties, and the majority of the disks have very similar size ratios. This result suggests that the bulk of the disk population may behave alike and be in a similar evolutionary stage, independent of the stellar and disk properties. These results should be further investigated, since the optical depth difference between CO and dust continuum might play a major role in the observed size ratios of the population. Lastly, we find a monotonic correlation between the CO flux and the CO size. The results for the majority of the disks are consistent with optically thick emission and an average CO temperature of around 30 K; however, the exact value of the temperature is difficult to constrain.« less
  2. Context. Recent surveys of the Galactic plane in the dust continuum and CO emission lines reveal that large (≳50 pc) and massive (≳10 5 M ⊙ ) filaments, know as giant molecular filaments (GMFs), may be linked to Galactic dynamics and trace the mid-plane of the gravitational potential in the Milky Way. Yet our physical understanding of GMFs is still poor. Aims. We investigate the dense gas properties of one GMF, with the ultimate goal of connecting these dense gas tracers with star formation processes in the GMF. Methods. We imaged one entire GMF located at l ~ 52–54° longitude,more »GMF54 (~68 pc long), in the empirical dense gas tracers using the HCN(1–0), HNC(1–0), and HCO + (1–0) lines, and their 13 C isotopologue transitions, as well as the N 2 H + (1–0) line. We studied the dense gas distribution, the column density probability density functions (N-PDFs), and the line ratios within the GMF. Results. The dense gas molecular transitions follow the extended structure of the filament with area filling factors between 0.06 and 0.28 with respect to 13 CO(1–0). We constructed the N-PDFs of H 2 for each of the dense gas tracers based on their column densities and assumed uniform abundance. The N-PDFs of the dense gas tracers appear curved in log–log representation, and the HCO + N-PDF has the flattest power-law slope index. Studying the N-PDFs for sub-regions of GMF54, we found an evolutionary trend in the N-PDFs that high-mass star-forming and photon-dominated regions have flatter power-law indices. The integrated intensity ratios of the molecular lines in GMF54 are comparable to those in nearby galaxies. In particular, the N 2 H + / 13 CO ratio, which traces the dense gas fraction, has similar values in GMF54 and all nearby galaxies except Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies. Conclusions. As the largest coherent cold gaseous structure in our Milky Way, GMFs, are outstanding candidates for connecting studies of star formation on Galactic and extragalactic scales. By analyzing a complete map of the dense gas in a GMF we have found that: (1) the dense gas N-PDFs appear flatter in more evolved regions and steeper in younger regions, and (2) its integrated dense gas intensity ratios are similar to those of nearby galaxies.« less
  3. Context. Supersonic disordered flows accompany the formation and evolution of molecular clouds (MCs). It has been argued that this is turbulence that can support against gravitational collapse and form hierarchical sub-structures. Aims. We examine the time evolution of simulated MCs to investigate: What physical process dominates the driving of turbulent flows? How can these flows be characterised? Are they consistent with uniform turbulence or gravitational collapse? Do the simulated flows agree with observations? Methods. We analysed three MCs that have formed self-consistently within kiloparsec-scale numerical simulations of the interstellar medium (ISM). The simulated ISM evolves under the influence of physicalmore »processes including self-gravity, stratification, magnetic fields, supernova-driven turbulence, and radiative heating and cooling. We characterise the flows using velocity structure functions (VSFs) with and without density weighting or a density cutoff, and computed in one or three dimensions. However, we do not include optical depth effects that can hide motions in the densest gas, limiting comparison of our results with observations. Results. In regions with sufficient resolution, the density-weighted VSFs initially appear to follow the expectations for uniform turbulence, with a first-order power-law exponent consistent with Larson’s size-velocity relationship. Supernova blast wave impacts on MCs produce short-lived coherent motions at large scales, increasing the scaling exponents for a crossing time. Gravitational contraction drives small-scale motions, producing scaling coefficients that drop or even turn negative as small scales become dominant. Removing the density weighting eliminates this effect as it emphasises the diffuse ISM. Conclusions. We conclude that two different effects coincidentally reproduce Larson’s size velocity relationship. Initially, uniform turbulence dominates, so the energy cascade produces VSFs that are consistent with Larson’s relationship. Later, contraction dominates and the density-weighted VSFs become much shallower or even inverted, but the relationship of the global average velocity dispersion of the MCs to their radius follows Larson’s relationship, reflecting virial equilibrium or free-fall collapse. The injection of energy by shocks is visible in the VSFs, but decays within a crossing time.« less
  4. We report the detection of a transiting super-Earth-sized planet ( R = 1.39 ± 0.09 R ⊕ ) in a 1.4-day orbit around L 168-9 (TOI-134), a bright M1V dwarf ( V = 11, K = 7.1) located at 25.15 ± 0.02 pc. The host star was observed in the first sector of the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission. For confirmation and planet mass measurement purposes, this was followed up with ground-based photometry, seeing-limited and high-resolution imaging, and precise radial velocity (PRV) observations using the HARPS and Magellan /PFS spectrographs. By combining the TESS data and PRV observations, wemore »find the mass of L 168-9 b to be 4.60 ± 0.56 M ⊕ and thus the bulk density to be 1.74 −0.33 +0.44 times higher than that of the Earth. The orbital eccentricity is smaller than 0.21 (95% confidence). This planet is a level one candidate for the TESS mission’s scientific objective of measuring the masses of 50 small planets, and it is one of the most observationally accessible terrestrial planets for future atmospheric characterization.« less