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  1. Abstract Lanthanides in the trivalent oxidation state are typically described using an ionic picture that leads to localized magnetic moments. The hierarchical energy scales associated with trivalent lanthanides produce desirable properties for e.g., molecular magnetism, quantum materials, and quantum transduction. Here, we show that this traditional ionic paradigm breaks down for praseodymium in the tetravalent oxidation state. Synthetic, spectroscopic, and theoretical tools deployed on several solid-state Pr 4+ -oxides uncover the unusual participation of 4 f orbitals in bonding and the anomalous hybridization of the 4 f 1 configuration with ligand valence electrons, analogous to transition metals. The competition between crystal-field and spin-orbit-coupling interactions fundamentally transforms the spin-orbital magnetism of Pr 4+ , which departs from the J eff  = 1/2 limit and resembles that of high-valent actinides. Our results show that Pr 4+ ions are in a class on their own, where the hierarchy of single-ion energy scales can be tailored to explore new correlated phenomena in quantum materials. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  2. Sulfur K-edge XAS data provide a unique tool to examine oxidation states and covalency in electronically complex S-based ligands. We present sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy on a discrete redox-series of Ni-based tetrathiafulvalene tetrathiolate (TTFtt) complexes as well as on a 1D coordination polymer (CP), NiTTFtt. Experiment and theory suggest that Ni–S covalency decreases with oxidation which has implications for charge transport pathways. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 28, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 2, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 9, 2024
  5. Water is the ideal green solvent for organic electrosynthesis. However, a majority of electroorganic processes require potentials that lie beyond the electrochemical window for water. In general, water oxidation and reduction lead to poor synthetic yields and selectivity or altogether prohibit carrying out a desired reaction. Herein, we report several electroorganic reactions in water using synthetic strategies referred to as reductive oxidation and oxidative reduction. Reductive oxidation involves the homogeneous reduction of peroxydisulfate (S2O82–) via electrogenerated Ru(NH3)62+ at potential of –0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl (3.5 M KCl) to form the highly oxidizing sulfate radical anion (E0′ (SO4•–/SO42–) = 2.21 V vs. Ag/AgCl), which is capable of oxidizing species beyond the water oxidation potential. Electrochemically generated SO4•– then efficiently abstracts a hydrogen atom from a variety of organic compounds such as benzyl alcohol and toluene to yield product in water. The reverse analogue of reductive oxidation is oxidative reduction. In this case, the homogeneous oxidation of oxalate (C2O42–) by electrochemically generated Ru(bpy)33+ produces the strongly reducing carbon dioxide radical anion (E0′ (CO2•–/CO2) = –2.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl), which is capable of reducing species at potential beyond the water or proton reduction potential. In preliminary studies, the CO2•– has used to homogenously reduce the C–Br moiety belonging to benzyl bromide at an oxidizing potential in aqueous solution. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 24, 2024
  6. Abstract

    Species interactions link animal behaviour to community structure and macroecological patterns of biodiversity. One common type of trophic species interaction is disturbance foraging—the act of obtaining food at a disturbance created by another organism. Disturbance foraging is widespread across the animal kingdom, especially among birds, yet previous research has been largely anecdotal and we still lack a synthetic understanding of how this behaviour varies geographically, phylogenetically and ecologically. To address these gaps, we conducted a comprehensive literature review to test focal hypotheses about disturbance foraging behaviour in birds. We found that avian disturbance foraging was geographically ubiquitous, occurring in both aquatic and terrestrial habitats across six continents and four oceans. Consistent with predictions based on established species diversity gradients in different habitat types, the majority of terrestrial observations occurred at tropical latitudes, whereas aquatic observations took place most frequently in temperate marine waters. Although disturbance foraging was widespread across the avian phylogeny, contrary to our prediction, the behaviour was also conserved phylogenetically (Pagel'sλ = 0.7) and clustered within suboscine landbirds in terrestrial environments and seabirds in aquatic environments. Similarly, although disturbers were taxonomically diverse as we predicted, interactions were unexpectedly dominated by swarm‐raiding ants in terrestrial environments and cetaceans in aquatic environments. Diet and body mass were also important predictors of disturbance foraging associations: Responders followed disturbers with similar diets and larger body sizes. Overall, our hypothesis‐testing framework provides insight into the importance of geography, phylogeny and ecology as predictors of disturbance foraging behaviour. We anticipate that this comprehensive assessment of disturbance foraging will serve to generate additional hypotheses and spark future research and management considerations about this fascinating but poorly studied suite of species interactions, especially as biotic interactions face unprecedented risks in our rapidly changing world.

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