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  1. Abstract

    We present a new model of interstellar dust in which large grains are a single composite material, “astrodust,” and nanoparticle-sized grains come in distinct varieties including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We argue that a single-composition model for grains larger than ∼0.02μm most naturally explains the lack of frequency dependence in the far-infrared (FIR) polarization fraction and the characteristic ratio of optical to FIR polarization. We derive a size distribution and alignment function for 1.4:1 oblate astrodust grains that, with PAHs, reproduce the mean wavelength dependence and polarization of Galactic extinction and emission from the diffuse interstellar medium while respecting constraints on solid-phase abundances. All model data and Python-based interfaces are made publicly available.

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  2. Abstract

    We present a cross-correlation analysis between1resolution total intensity and polarization observations from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 150 and 220 GHz and 15″ mid-infrared photometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) over 107 12.°5 × 12.°5 patches of sky. We detect a spatially isotropic signal in the WISE×ACTTTcross-power spectrum at 30σsignificance that we interpret as the correlation between the cosmic infrared background at ACT frequencies and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission from galaxies in WISE, i.e., the cosmic PAH background. Within the Milky Way, the Galactic dustTTspectra are generally well described by power laws inover the range 103<< 104, but there is evidence both for variability in the power-law index and for non-power-law behavior in some regions. We measure a positive correlation between WISE total intensity and ACTE-mode polarization at 1000 <≲ 6000 at >3σin each of 35 distinct ∼100 deg2regions of the sky, suggesting that alignment between Galactic density structures and the local magnetic field persists to subparsec physical scales in these regions. The distribution ofTEamplitudes in thisrange across all 107 regions is biased to positive values, while there is no evidence for such a bias in theTBspectra. This work constitutes the highest-measurements of the Galactic dustTEspectrum to date and indicates that cross-correlation with high-resolution mid-infrared measurements of dust emission is a promising tool for constraining the spatial statistics of dust emission at millimeter wavelengths.

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  3. Abstract We present design considerations for the Transiting Exosatellites, Moons, and Planets in Orion (TEMPO) Survey with the Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope. This proposed 30 days survey is designed to detect a population of transiting extrasolar satellites, moons, and planets in the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). The young (1–3 Myr), densely populated ONC harbors about a thousand bright brown dwarfs (BDs) and free-floating planetary-mass objects (FFPs). TEMPO offers sufficient photometric precision to monitor FFPs with M >1 M J for transiting satellites. The survey is also capable of detecting FFPs down to sub-Saturn masses via direct imaging, although follow-up confirmation will be challenging. TEMPO yield estimates include 14 (3–22) exomoons/satellites transiting FFPs and 54 (8–100) satellites transiting BDs. Of this population, approximately 50% of companions would be “super-Titans” (Titan to Earth mass). Yield estimates also include approximately 150 exoplanets transiting young Orion stars, of which >50% will orbit mid-to-late M dwarfs. TEMPO would provide the first census demographics of small exosatellites orbiting FFPs and BDs, while simultaneously offering insights into exoplanet evolution at the earliest stages. This detected exosatellite population is likely to be markedly different from the current census of exoplanets with similar masses (e.g., Earth-mass exosatellites that still possess H/He envelopes). Although our yield estimates are highly uncertain, as there are no known exoplanets or exomoons analogous to these satellites, the TEMPO survey would test the prevailing theories of exosatellite formation and evolution, which limit the certainty surrounding detection yields. 
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  4. Abstract

    Using new large-area maps of the cold neutral medium (CNM) fraction,fCNM, we investigate the relationship between the CNM, the abundance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the anomalous microwave emission (AME). We first present ourfCNMmap based on full-sky HI4PI data, using a convolutional neural network to convert the spectroscopic Hidata tofCNM. We demonstrate thatfCNMis strongly correlated with the fraction of dust in PAHs as estimated from mid- and far-infrared dust emission. In contrast, we find no correlation betweenfCNMand the amount of AME per dust emission and no to weakly negative correlation betweenfCNMand the AME peak frequency. These results suggest PAHs preferentially reside in cold, relatively dense gas, perhaps owing to enhanced destruction in more diffuse media. The lack of positive correlation betweenfCNMand AME peak frequency is in tension with expectations from theoretical models positing different spectral energy distributions of AME in the cold versus warm neutral medium. We suggest that different PAH abundances and emission physics in different interstellar environments may explain the weaker-than-expected correlation between 12μm PAH emission and AME even if PAHs are the AME carriers.

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