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  1. null (Ed.)
    Abstract Magnetostrictive materials transduce magnetic and mechanical energies and when combined with piezoelectric elements, evoke magnetoelectric transduction for high-sensitivity magnetic field sensors and energy-efficient beyond-CMOS technologies. The dearth of ductile, rare-earth-free materials with high magnetostrictive coefficients motivates the discovery of superior materials. Fe 1− x Ga x alloys are amongst the highest performing rare-earth-free magnetostrictive materials; however, magnetostriction becomes sharply suppressed beyond x  = 19% due to the formation of a parasitic ordered intermetallic phase. Here, we harness epitaxy to extend the stability of the BCC Fe 1− x Ga x alloy to gallium compositions as high as x  = 30% and in so doing dramatically boost the magnetostriction by as much as 10x relative to the bulk and 2x larger than canonical rare-earth based magnetostrictors. A Fe 1− x Ga x − [Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 ] 0.7 −[PbTiO 3 ] 0.3 (PMN-PT) composite magnetoelectric shows robust 90° electrical switching of magnetic anisotropy and a converse magnetoelectric coefficient of 2.0 × 10 −5  s m −1 . When optimally scaled, this high coefficient implies stable switching at ~80 aJ per bit.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  2. Abstract The manipulation of antiferromagnetic order in magnetoelectric Cr 2 O 3 using electric field has been of great interest due to its potential in low-power electronics. The substantial leakage and low dielectric breakdown observed in twinned Cr 2 O 3 thin films, however, hinders its development in energy efficient spintronics. To compensate, large film thicknesses (250 nm or greater) have been employed at the expense of device scalability. Recently, epitaxial V 2 O 3 thin film electrodes have been used to eliminate twin boundaries and significantly reduce the leakage of 300 nm thick single crystal films. Here we report the electrical endurance and magnetic properties of thin (less than 100 nm) single crystal Cr 2 O 3 films on epitaxial V 2 O 3 buffered Al 2 O 3 (0001) single crystal substrates. The growth of Cr 2 O 3 on isostructural V 2 O 3 thin film electrodes helps eliminate the existence of twin domains in Cr 2 O 3 films, therefore significantly reducing leakage current and increasing dielectric breakdown. 60 nm thick Cr 2 O 3 films show bulk-like resistivity (~ 10 12 Ω cm) with a breakdown voltage in the range of 150–300 MV/m. Exchange bias measurements of 30 nm thick Cr 2more »O 3 display a blocking temperature of ~ 285 K while room temperature optical second harmonic generation measurements possess the symmetry consistent with bulk magnetic order.« less
  3. Abstract Historically, the enthalpy is the criterion for oxide materials discovery and design. In this regime, highly controlled thin film epitaxy can be leveraged to manifest bulk and interfacial phases that are non-existent in bulk equilibrium phase diagrams. With the recent discovery of entropy-stabilized oxides, entropy and disorder engineering has been realized as an orthogonal approach. This has led to the nucleation and rapid growth of research on high-entropy oxides – multicomponent oxides where the configurational entropy is large but its contribution to its stabilization need not be significant or is currently unknown. From current research, it is clear that entropy enhances the chemical solubility of species and can realize new stereochemical configurations which has led to the rapid discovery of new phases and compositions. The research has expanded beyond studies to understand the role of entropy in stabilization and realization of new crystal structures to now include physical properties and the roles of local and global disorder. Here, key observations made regarding the dielectric and magnetic properties are reviewed. These materials have recently been observed to display concerted symmetry breaking, metal-insulator transitions, and magnetism, paving the way for engineering of these and potentially other functional phenomena. Excitingly, the disordermore »in these oxides allows for new interplay between spin, orbital, charge, and lattice degrees of freedom to design the physical behavior. We also provide a perspective on the state of the field and prospects for entropic oxide materials in applications considering their unique characteristics.« less