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  1. null (Ed.)
  2. Our ability to predict the structure and evolution of stars is in part limited by complex, 3D hydrodynamic processes such as convective boundary mixing. Hydrodynamic simulations help us understand the dynamics of stellar convection and convective boundaries. However, the codes used to compute such simulations are usually tested on extremely simple problems and the reliability and reproducibility of their predictions for turbulent flows is unclear. We define a test problem involving turbulent convection in a plane-parallel box, which leads to mass entrainment from, and internal-wave generation in, a stably stratified layer. We compare the outputs from the codes FLASH , MUSIC , PPMSTAR , PROMPI , and SLH , which have been widely employed to study hydrodynamic problems in stellar interiors. The convection is dominated by the largest scales that fit into the simulation box. All time-averaged profiles of velocity components, fluctuation amplitudes, and fluxes of enthalpy and kinetic energy are within ≲3 σ of the mean of all simulations on a given grid (128 3 and 256 3 grid cells), where σ describes the statistical variation due to the flow’s time dependence. They also agree well with a 512 3 reference run. The 128 3 and 256 3 simulations agree within 9% and 4%, respectively, on the total mass entrained into the convective layer. The entrainment rate appears to be set by the amount of energy that can be converted to work in our setup and details of the small-scale flows in the boundary layer seem to be largely irrelevant. Our results lend credence to hydrodynamic simulations of flows in stellar interiors. We provide in electronic form all outputs of our simulations as well as all information needed to reproduce or extend our study. 
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  3. ABSTRACT The origin of the proton-rich trans-iron isotopes in the Solar system is still uncertain. Single-degenerate thermonuclear supernovae (SNIa) with n-capture nucleosynthesis seeds assembled in the external layers of the progenitor’s rapidly accreting white dwarf (RAWD) phase may produce these isotopes. We calculate the stellar structure of the accretion phase of five white dwarf (WD) models with initial masses ≥ 0.85 $\, \mathrm{M}_\odot$ using the stellar code mesa The near-surface layers of the 1, 1.26, 1.32 and 1.38 $\, \mathrm{M}_\odot$ models are most representative of the regions in which the bulk of the p nuclei are produced during SNIa explosions, and for these models we also calculate the neutron-capture nucleosynthesis in the external layers. Contrary to previous RAWD models at lower mass, we find that the H-shell flashes are the main site of n-capture nucleosynthesis. We find high neutron densities up to several 1015 cm−3 in the most massive WDs. Through the recurrence of the H-shell flashes these intermediate neutron densities can be sustained effectively for a long time leading to high-neutron exposures with a strong production up to Pb. Both the neutron density and the neutron exposure increase with increasing the mass of the accreting WD. Finally, the SNIa nucleosynthesis is calculated using the obtained abundances as seeds. We obtain solar to supersolar abundances for p-nuclei with A > 96. Our models show that SNIa are a viable p-process production site. 
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  4. null (Ed.)
  5. Abstract Interactions between convective shells in evolved massive stars have been linked to supernova impostors, to the production of the odd-Z elements Cl, K, and Sc, and they might also help generate the large-scale asphericities that are known to facilitate shock revival in supernova explosion models. We investigate the process of ingestion of C-shell material into a convective O-burning shell, including the hydrodynamic feedback from the nuclear burning of the ingested material. Our 3D hydrodynamic simulations span almost 3 dex in the total luminosity $L_\rm {tot}$. All but one of the simulations reach a quasi-stationary state with the entrainment rate and convective velocity proportional to $L_\rm {tot}$ and $L_\rm {tot}^{1/3}$, respectively. Carbon burning provides 14 – $33\%$ of the total luminosity, depending on the set of reactions considered. Equivalent simulations done on 7683 and 11523 grids are in excellent quantitative agreement. The flow is dominated by a few large-scale convective cells. An instability leading to large-scale oscillations with Mach numbers in excess of 0.2 develops in an experimental run with the energy yield from C burning increased by a factor of 10. This run represents most closely the conditions expected in a violent O-C shell merger, which is a potential production site for odd-Z elements such as K and Sc and which may seed asymmetries in the supernova progenitor. 1D simulations may underestimate the energy generation from the burning of ingested material by as much as a factor two owing to their missing the effect of clumpiness of entrained material on the nuclear reaction rate. 
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  6. Abstract

    Nuclear astrophysics is a field at the intersection of nuclear physics and astrophysics, which seeks to understand the nuclear engines of astronomical objects and the origin of the chemical elements. This white paper summarizes progress and status of the field, the new open questions that have emerged, and the tremendous scientific opportunities that have opened up with major advances in capabilities across an ever growing number of disciplines and subfields that need to be integrated. We take a holistic view of the field discussing the unique challenges and opportunities in nuclear astrophysics in regards to science, diversity, education, and the interdisciplinarity and breadth of the field. Clearly nuclear astrophysics is a dynamic field with a bright future that is entering a new era of discovery opportunities.

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