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  1. Galperin, Michael Y. (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT Membrane potential homeostasis is essential for cell survival. Defects in membrane potential lead to pleiotropic phenotypes, consistent with the central role of membrane energetics in cell physiology. Homologs of the progestin and AdipoQ receptors (PAQRs) are conserved in multiple phyla of Bacteria and Eukarya . In eukaryotes, PAQRs are proposed to modulate membrane fluidity and fatty acid (FA) metabolism. The role of bacterial homologs has not been elucidated. Here, we use Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis to show that bacterial PAQR homologs, which we name “TrhA,” have a role in membrane energetics homeostasis. Using transcriptional fusions, we show thatmore »E. coli TrhA (encoded by yqfA ) is part of the unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis regulon. Fatty acid analyses and physiological assays show that a lack of TrhA in both E. coli and B. subtilis (encoded by yplQ ) provokes subtle but consistent changes in membrane fatty acid profiles that do not translate to control of membrane fluidity. Instead, membrane proteomics in E. coli suggested a disrupted energy metabolism and dysregulated membrane energetics in the mutant, though it grew similarly to its parent. These changes translated into a disturbed membrane potential in the mutant relative to its parent under various growth conditions. Similar dysregulation of membrane energetics was observed in a different E. coli strain and in the distantly related B. subtilis . Together, our findings are consistent with a role for TrhA in membrane energetics homeostasis, through a mechanism that remains to be elucidated. IMPORTANCE Eukaryotic homologs of the progestin and AdipoQ receptor family (PAQR) have been shown to regulate membrane fluidity by affecting, through unknown mechanisms, unsaturated fatty acid (FA) metabolism. The bacterial homologs studied here mediate small and consistent changes in unsaturated FA metabolism that do not seem to impact membrane fluidity but, rather, alter membrane energetics homeostasis. Together, the findings here suggest that bacterial and eukaryotic PAQRs share functions in maintaining membrane homeostasis (fluidity in eukaryotes and energetics for bacteria with TrhA homologs).« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 19, 2023
  2. Petersen, Jillian Michelle (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT Bacterial chemotaxis affords motile bacteria the ability to navigate the environment to locate niches for growth and survival. At the molecular level, chemotaxis depends on chemoreceptor signaling arrays that interact with cytoplasmic proteins to control the direction of movement. In Azospirillum brasilense , chemotaxis is mediated by two distinct chemotaxis pathways: Che1 and Che4. Both Che1 and Che4 are critical in the A. brasilense free-living and plant-associated lifestyles. Here, we use whole-cell proteomics and metabolomics to characterize the role of chemotaxis in A. brasilense physiology. We found that mutants lacking CheA1 or CheA4 or both are affected in nonchemotaxismore »functions, including major changes in transcription, signaling transport, and cell metabolism. We identify specific effects of CheA1 and CheA4 on nitrogen metabolism, including nitrate assimilation and nitrogen fixation, that may depend, at least, on the transcriptional control of rpoN , which encodes RpoN, a global regulator of metabolism, including nitrogen. Consistent with proteomics, the abundance of several nitrogenous compounds (purines, pyrimidines, and amino acids) changed in the metabolomes of the chemotaxis mutants relative to the parental strain. Further, we uncover novel, and yet uncharacterized, layers of transcriptional and posttranscriptional control of nitrogen metabolism regulators. Together, our data reveal roles for CheA1 and CheA4 in linking chemotaxis and nitrogen metabolism, likely through control of global regulatory networks. IMPORTANCE Bacterial chemotaxis is widespread in bacteria, increasing competitiveness in diverse environments and mediating associations with eukaryotic hosts ranging from commensal to beneficial and pathogenic. In most bacteria, chemotaxis signaling is tightly linked to energy metabolism, with this coupling occurring through the sensory input of several energy-sensing chemoreceptors. Here, we show that in A. brasilense the chemotaxis proteins have key roles in modulating nitrogen metabolism, including nitrate assimilation and nitrogen fixation, through novel and yet unknown regulations. These results are significant given that A. brasilense is a model bacterium for plant growth promotion and free-living nitrogen fixation and is used as a bio-inoculant for cereal crops. Chemotaxis signaling in A. brasilense thus links locomotor behaviors to nitrogen metabolism, allowing cells to continuously and reciprocally adjust metabolism and chemotaxis signaling as they navigate gradients.« less
  3. Abstract Background

    Total DNA (intracellular, iDNA and extracellular, eDNA) from ancient permafrost records the mixed genetic repository of the past and present microbial populations through geological time. Given the exceptional preservation of eDNA under perennial frozen conditions, typical metagenomic sequencing of total DNA precludes the discrimination between fossil and living microorganisms in ancient cryogenic environments. DNA repair protocols were combined with high throughput sequencing (HTS) of separate iDNA and eDNA fraction to reconstruct metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from ancient microbial DNA entrapped in Siberian coastal permafrost.

    Results

    Despite the severe DNA damage in ancient permafrost, the coupling of DNA repair and HTS resultedmore »in a total of 52 MAGs from sediments across a chronosequence (26–120 kyr). These MAGs were compared with those derived from the same samples but without utilizing DNA repair protocols. The MAGs from the youngest stratum showed minimal DNA damage and thus likely originated from viable, active microbial species. Many MAGs from the older and deeper sediment appear related to past aerobic microbial populations that had died upon freezing. MAGs from anaerobic lineages, includingAsgardarchaea, however exhibited minimal DNA damage and likely represent extant living microorganisms that have become adapted to the cryogenic and anoxic environments. The integration of aspartic acid racemization modeling and metaproteomics further constrained the metabolic status of the living microbial populations. Collectively, combining DNA repair protocols with HTS unveiled the adaptive strategies of microbes to long-term survivability in ancient permafrost.

    Conclusions

    Our results indicated that coupling of DNA repair protocols with simultaneous sequencing of iDNA and eDNA fractions enabled the assembly of MAGs from past and living microorganisms in ancient permafrost. The genomic reconstruction from the past and extant microbial populations expanded our understanding about the microbial successions and biogeochemical alterations from the past paleoenvironment to the present-day frozen state. Furthermore, we provided genomic insights into long-term survival mechanisms of microorganisms under cryogenic conditions through geological time. The combined strategies in this study can be extrapolated to examine other ancient non-permafrost environments and constrain the search for past and extant extraterrestrial life in permafrost and ice deposits on Mars.

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  4. Abstract Metaproteomics has matured into a powerful tool to assess functional interactions in microbial communities. While many metaproteomic workflows are available, the impact of method choice on results remains unclear. Here, we carry out a community-driven, multi-laboratory comparison in metaproteomics: the critical assessment of metaproteome investigation study (CAMPI). Based on well-established workflows, we evaluate the effect of sample preparation, mass spectrometry, and bioinformatic analysis using two samples: a simplified, laboratory-assembled human intestinal model and a human fecal sample. We observe that variability at the peptide level is predominantly due to sample processing workflows, with a smaller contribution of bioinformatic pipelines.more »These peptide-level differences largely disappear at the protein group level. While differences are observed for predicted community composition, similar functional profiles are obtained across workflows. CAMPI demonstrates the robustness of present-day metaproteomics research, serves as a template for multi-laboratory studies in metaproteomics, and provides publicly available data sets for benchmarking future developments.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  5. Abstract

    To what extent multi-omic techniques could reflectin situmicrobial process rates remains unclear, especially for highly diverse habitats like soils. Here, we performed microcosm incubations using sandy soil from an agricultural site in Midwest USA. Microcosms amended with isotopically labeled ammonium and urea to simulate a fertilization event showed nitrification (up to 4.1 ± 0.87 µg N-NO3g−1dry soil d−1) and accumulation of N2O after 192 hours of incubation. Nitrification activity (NH4+ → NH2OH → NO → NO2- → NO3) was accompanied by a 6-fold increase in relative expression of the 16S rRNA gene (RNA/DNA) between 10 and 192 hours of incubation for ammonia-oxidizing bacteriaNitrosomonasandNitrosospira, unlike archaea and comammox bacteria, which showed stable genemore »expression. A strong relationship between nitrification activity and betaproteobacterial ammonia monooxygenase and nitrite oxidoreductase transcript abundances revealed that mRNA quantitatively reflected measured activity and was generally more sensitive than DNA under these conditions. Although peptides related to housekeeping proteins from nitrite-oxidizing microorganisms were detected, their abundance was not significantly correlated with activity, revealing that meta-proteomics provided only a qualitative assessment of activity. Altogether, these findings underscore the strengths and limitations of multi-omic approaches for assessing diverse microbial communities in soils and provide new insights into nitrification.

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  6. ABSTRACT Production of unconventional oil and gas continues to rise, but the effects of high-density hydraulic fracturing (HF) activity near aquatic ecosystems are not fully understood. A commonly used biocide in HF, 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide (DBNPA), was studied in microcosms of HF-impacted (HF+) versus HF-unimpacted (HF−) surface water streams to (i) compare the microbial community response, (ii) investigate DBNPA degradation products based on past HF exposure, and (iii) compare the microbial community response differences and similarities between the HF biocides DBNPA and glutaraldehyde. The microbial community responded to DBNPA differently in HF-impacted versus HF-unimpacted microcosms in terms of the number of 16Smore »rRNA gene copies quantified, alpha and beta diversity, and differential abundance analyses of microbial community composition through time. The differences in microbial community changes affected degradation dynamics. HF-impacted microbial communities were more sensitive to DBNPA, causing the biocide and by-products of the degradation to persist for longer than in HF-unimpacted microcosms. A total of 17 DBNPA by-products were detected, many of them not widely known as DBNPA by-products. Many of the brominated by-products detected that are believed to be uncharacterized may pose environmental and health impacts. Similar taxa were able to tolerate glutaraldehyde and DBNPA; however, DBNPA was not as effective for microbial control, as indicated by a smaller overall decrease of 16S rRNA gene copies/ml after exposure to the biocide, and a more diverse set of taxa was able to tolerate it. These findings suggest that past HF activity in streams can affect the microbial community response to environmental perturbation such as that caused by the biocide DBNPA. IMPORTANCE Unconventional oil and gas activity can affect pH, total organic carbon, and microbial communities in surface water, altering their ability to respond to new environmental and/or anthropogenic perturbations. These findings demonstrate that 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide (DBNPA), a common hydraulic fracturing (HF) biocide, affects microbial communities differently as a consequence of past HF exposure, persisting longer in HF-impacted (HF+) waters. These findings also demonstrate that DBNPA has low efficacy in environmental microbial communities regardless of HF impact. These findings are of interest, as understanding microbial responses is key for formulating remediation strategies in unconventional oil and gas (UOG)-impacted environments. Moreover, some DBNPA degradation by-products are even more toxic and recalcitrant than DBNPA itself, and this work identifies novel brominated degradation by-products formed.« less