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  1. Abstract. We use 25 new measurements of in situ produced cosmogenic 26Al and 10Bein river sand, paired with estimates of dissolved load flux in river water,to characterize the processes and pace of landscape change in central Cuba.Long-term erosion rates inferred from 10Be concentrations in quartzextracted from central Cuban river sand range from3.4–189 Mg km−2 yr−1 (mean 59, median 45). Dissolved loads (10–176 Mg km−2 yr−1; mean 92, median 97), calculated from stream soluteconcentrations and modeled runoff, exceed measured cosmogenic-10Be-derived erosion rates in 18 of 23 basins. This disparity mandatesthat in this environment landscape-scale mass loss is not fully representedby the cosmogenic nuclide measurements. The 26Al / 10Be ratios are lower than expected for steady-state exposure or erosion in 16 of 24 samples. Depressed 26Al / 10Be ratios occur in many of the basins that have the greatest disparity between dissolved loads (high) and erosion rates inferred from cosmogenic nuclide concentrations (low). Depressed 26Al / 10Be ratios are consistentwith the presence of a deep, mixed, regolith layer providing extendedstorage times on slopes and/or burial and extended storage during fluvialtransport. River water chemical analyses indicate that many basins with lower 26Al / 10Be ratios and high 10Be concentrations are underlain at least in part by evaporitic rocks that rapidly dissolve. Our data show that when assessingmore »mass loss in humid tropical landscapes,accounting for the contribution of rock dissolution at depth is particularly important. In such warm, wet climates, mineral dissolution can occur many meters below the surface, beyond the penetration depth of most cosmic rays and thus the production of most cosmogenic nuclides. Our data suggest the importance of estimating solute fluxes and measuring paired cosmogenic nuclides to better understand the processes and rates of mass transfer at a basin scale.« less
  2. Abstract. Glaciers preserve climate variations in their geologicaland geomorphological records, which makes them prime candidates for climatereconstructions. Investigating the glacier–climate system over the pastmillennia is particularly relevant first because the amplitude andfrequency of natural climate variability during the Holocene provides theclimatic context against which modern, human-induced climate change must beassessed. Second, the transition from the last glacial to the currentinterglacial promises important insights into the climate system duringwarming, which is of particular interest with respect to ongoing climatechange. Evidence of stable ice margin positions that record cooling during the past12 kyr are preserved in two glaciated valleys of the Silvretta Massif in theeastern European Alps, the Jamtal (JAM) and the Laraintal (LAR). We mappedand dated moraines in these catchments including historical ridges usingberyllium-10 surface exposure dating (10Be SED) techniques andcorrelate resulting moraine formation intervals with climate proxy recordsto evaluate the spatial and temporal scale of these cold phases. The newgeochronologies indicate the formation of moraines during the early Holocene (EH), ca. 11.0 ± 0.7 ka (n = 19). Boulder ages along historical moraines (n = 6) suggest at least two glacier advances during the Little Ice Age (LIA; ca. 1250–1850 CE) around 1300 CE and in the second half of the 18th century. An earlier advance to the same positionmore »may have occurredaround 500 CE. The Jamtal and Laraintal moraine chronologies provide evidence thatmillennial-scale EH warming was superimposed by centennial-scale cooling.The timing of EH moraine formation coincides with brief temperature dropsidentified in local and regional paleoproxy records, most prominently withthe Preboreal Oscillation (PBO) and is consistent with moraine depositionin other catchments in the European Alps and in the Arctic region. Thisconsistency points to cooling beyond the local scale and therefore aregional or even hemispheric climate driver. Freshwater input sourced fromthe Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS), which changed circulation patterns in theNorth Atlantic, is a plausible explanation for EH cooling and moraineformation in the Nordic region and in Europe.« less
  3. Understanding the history of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is critical for determining its sensitivity to warming and contribution to sea level; however, that history is poorly known before the last interglacial. Most knowledge comes from interpretation of marine sediment, an indirect record of past ice-sheet extent and behavior. Subglacial sediment and rock, retrieved at the base of ice cores, provide terrestrial evidence for GrIS behavior during the Pleistocene. Here, we use multiple methods to determine GrIS history from subglacial sediment at the base of the Camp Century ice core collected in 1966. This material contains a stratigraphic record of glaciation and vegetation in northwestern Greenland spanning the Pleistocene. Enriched stable isotopes of pore-ice suggest precipitation at lower elevations implying ice-sheet absence. Plant macrofossils and biomarkers in the sediment indicate that paleo-ecosystems from previous interglacial periods are preserved beneath the GrIS. Cosmogenic26Al/10Be and luminescence data bracket the burial of the lower-most sediment between <3.2 ± 0.4 Ma and >0.7 to 1.4 Ma. In the upper-most sediment, cosmogenic26Al/10Be data require exposure within the last 1.0 ± 0.1 My. The unique subglacial sedimentary record from Camp Century documents at least two episodes of ice-free, vegetated conditions, each followed by glaciation. The lowermore »sediment derives from an Early Pleistocene GrIS advance.26Al/10Be ratios in the upper-most sediment match those in subglacial bedrock from central Greenland, suggesting similar ice-cover histories across the GrIS. We conclude that the GrIS persisted through much of the Pleistocene but melted and reformed at least once since 1.1 Ma.

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