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    We measure the mean-squared polarization fraction of a sample of 6282 Galactic cold clumps at 353 GHz, consisting of Planck Galactic cold clump (PGCC) catalogue category 1 objects [flux densities measured with signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) > 4]. At 353 GHz, we find the mean-squared polarization fraction, which we define as the mean-squared polarization divided by the mean-squared intensity, to be (4.79 ± 0.44) × 10−4 equation to an $11\, \sigma$ detection of polarization. We test if the polarization fraction depends on the clumps’ physical properties, including flux density, luminosity, Galactic latitude, and physical distance. We see a trend towards increasing polarization fraction with increasing Galactic latitude, but find no evidence that polarization depends on the other tested properties. The Simons Observatory, with angular resolution of order 1 arcmin and noise levels between 22 and $54\, \mu$K−arcmin at high frequencies, will substantially enhance our ability to determine the magnetic field structure in Galactic cold clumps. At $\ge 5\, \sigma$ significance, we predict the Simons Observatory will detect at least ∼12 000 cold clumps in intensity and ∼430 cold clumps in polarization. This number of polarization detections would represent a two orders of magnitude increase over the current Planck results. We also release software that can be used to mask these Galactic cold clumps in other analyses.

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  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2024
  4. Abstract

    The cosmic web contains filamentary structure on a wide range of scales. On the largest scales, superclustering aligns multiple galaxy clusters along intercluster bridges, visible through their thermal Sunyaev–Zel’dovich signal in the cosmic microwave background. We demonstrate a new, flexible method to analyze the hot gas signal from multiscale extended structures. We use a Comptony-map from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) stacked on redMaPPer cluster positions from the optical Dark Energy Survey (DES). Cutout images from they-map are oriented with large-scale structure information from DES galaxy data such that the superclustering signal is aligned before being overlaid. We find evidence of an extended quadrupole moment of the stackedysignal at the 3.5σlevel, demonstrating that the large-scale thermal energy surrounding galaxy clusters is anisotropically distributed. We compare our ACT × DES results with the Buzzard simulations, finding broad agreement. Using simulations, we highlight the promise of this novel technique for constraining the evolution of anisotropic, non-Gaussian structure using future combinations of microwave and optical surveys.

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  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2024
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024