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  1. Pe'er, I. (Ed.)
    We consider species tree estimation from multiple loci subject to intralocus recombination. We focus on 𝑅∗, a summary coalescent-based method using rooted triplets. We demonstrate analytically that intralocus recombination gives rise to an inconsistency zone, in which correct inference is not assured even in the limit of infinite amount of data. In addition, we validate and characterize this inconsistency zone through a simulation study that suggests that differential rates of recombination between closely related taxa can amplify the effect of incomplete lineage sorting and contribute to inconsistency.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 29, 2023
  2. Abstract Background

    Distortion arises during machining of metallic parts from two main mechanisms: 1) release of bulk residual stress (BRS) in the pre-form, and 2) permanent deformation induced by cut tools. Interaction between these mechanisms is unexplored.


    Assess this interaction using aluminum samples that have a flat surface with variations of BRS, where that surface is subsequently milled, and we observe milling-induced residual stress (MIRS) and distortion.


    Plate samples are cut from two kinds of large blocks, one kind stress-relieved by stretching and a second kind solution heat treated, quenched and aged. The BRS field in the plates is known from a recent series of measurements, being small in the stress relieved plates (within ±20 MPa) and large (±100 MPa) in the quenched plates, varying from tension to compression over the surface that is milled. MIRS is measured following milling using hole-drilling. Distortions of thin wafers cut at the milled surfaces are used to elucidate BRS/MIRS interactions. A finite element (FE) model and a strength of materials model are each used to assess consistency between wafer distortion and measured MIRS.


    Milling in samples with high BRS magnitude changes the directions of MIRS and distortion relative to the milling direction, with the direction ofmore »maximum curvature rotating toward or away from the milling direction depending on the sign and direction of BRS. High magnitude BRS was also found to increase the wafer peak arc height, nearly doubling the amount found in low BRS samples.


    Measured residual stress and observed wafer distortion both show interactions between MIRS and BRS. Stress analysis models show that the differences in measured MIRS are consistent with the differences in observed distortion.

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  3. Abstract Background

    Prior work described an approach for mapping the two-dimensional spatial distribution of biaxial residual stress in plate-like samples, the approach combining multiple slitting measurements with elastic stress analysis.


     This paper extends the prior work by applying a new variation of the slitting method that uses measurements of cut mouth opening displacement (CMOD) rather than back-face strain (BFS). 


    First, CMOD slitting is validated using an experiment where: BFS and CMOD are measured simultaneously on the same sample during incremental slitting; two residual stress profiles are computed, one from the BFS data and a second from the CMOD data; and the two residual stress profiles are compared. Following validation, multiple adjacent CMOD slitting measurements are used to construct two-dimensional maps of residual stress in plates cut from quenched aluminum.


    The two residual stress versus depth profiles, each computed separately from BFS or CMOD data, are in agreement, with compression near the plate boundaries (-150 MPa) and tension near the plate center (100 MPa); differences between the two stress profiles have a maximum of 25 MPa and a RMS of 7.2 MPa. Repeated biaxial residual stress mapping measurements show the CMOD technique is repeatable, and complementary contour method measurements show the mappingsmore »are valid. Aspects of CMOD and BFS deformations during slitting are also described and show they are generally complementary but that CMOD slitting is favorable in narrow samples.

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  4. Abstract Background While near surface residual stress (NSRS) from milling is a driver for distortion in aluminum parts there are few studies that directly compare available techniques for NSRS measurement. Objective We report application and assessment of four different techniques for evaluating residual stress versus depth in milled aluminum parts. Methods The four techniques are: hole-drilling, slotting, cos(α) x-ray diffraction (XRD), and sin 2 (ψ) XRD, all including incremental material removal to produce a stress versus depth profile. The milled aluminum parts are cut from stress-relieved plate, AA7050-T7451, with a range of table and tool speeds used to mill a large flat surface in several samples. NSRS measurements are made at specified locations on each sample. Results Resulting data show that NSRS from three techniques are in general agreement: hole-drilling, slotting, and sin 2 (ψ) XRD. At shallow depths (< 0.03 mm), sin 2 (ψ) XRD data have the best repeatability (< 15 MPa), but at larger depths (> 0.04 mm) hole-drilling and slotting have the best repeatability (< 10 MPa). NSRS data from cos(α) XRD differ from data provided by other techniques and the data are less repeatable. NSRS data for different milling parameters show that the depth of NSRS increases with feed per tooth and ismore »unaffected by cutting speed. Conclusion Hole-drilling, slotting, and sin 2 (ψ) XRD provided comparable results when assessing milling-induced near surface residual stress in aluminum. Combining a simple distortion test, comprising removal of a 1 mm thick wafer at the milled surface, with a companion stress analysis showed that NSRS data from hole-drilling are most consistent with milling-induced distortion.« less
  5. Abstract In this paper we examine a low-energy solar energetic particle (SEP) event observed by IS⊙IS’s Energetic Particle Instrument-Low (EPI-Lo) inside 0.18 au on 2020 September 30. This small SEP event has a very interesting time profile and ion composition. Our results show that the maximum energy and peak in intensity are observed mainly along the open radial magnetic field. The event shows velocity dispersion, and strong particle anisotropies are observed throughout the event, showing that more particles are streaming outward from the Sun. We do not see a shock in the in situ plasma or magnetic field data throughout the event. Heavy ions, such as O and Fe, were detected in addition to protons and 4He, but without significant enhancements in 3He or energetic electrons. Our analysis shows that this event is associated with a slow streamer blowout coronal mass ejection (SBO-CME), and the signatures of this small CME event are consistent with those typical of larger CME events. The time–intensity profile of this event shows that the Parker Solar Probe encountered the western flank of the SBO-CME. The anisotropic and dispersive nature of this event in a shockless local plasma gives indications that these particles are most likelymore »accelerated remotely near the Sun by a weak shock or compression wave ahead of the SBO-CME. This event may represent direct observations of the source of the low-energy SEP seed particle population.« less
  6. Abstract Magnetized plasma interactions are ubiquitous in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. Various physical effects have been shown to be important within colliding plasma flows influenced by opposing magnetic fields, however, experimental verification of the mechanisms within the interaction region has remained elusive. Here we discuss a laser-plasma experiment whereby experimental results verify that Biermann battery generated magnetic fields are advected by Nernst flows and anisotropic pressure effects dominate these flows in a reconnection region. These fields are mapped using time-resolved proton probing in multiple directions. Various experimental, modelling and analytical techniques demonstrate the importance of anisotropic pressure in semi-collisional, high- β plasmas, causing a reduction in the magnitude of the reconnecting fields when compared to resistive processes. Anisotropic pressure dynamics are crucial in collisionless plasmas, but are often neglected in collisional plasmas. We show pressure anisotropy to be essential in maintaining the interaction layer, redistributing magnetic fields even for semi-collisional, high energy density physics (HEDP) regimes.
  7. Abstract We present observations of ≳10–100 keV nucleon −1 suprathermal (ST) H, He, O, and Fe ions associated with crossings of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) at radial distances of <0.1 au from the Sun. Our key findings are as follows: (1) very few heavy ions are detected during the first full crossing, the heavy-ion intensities are reduced during the second partial crossing and peak just after the second crossing; (2) ion arrival times exhibit no velocity dispersion; (3) He pitch-angle distributions track the magnetic field polarity reversal and show up to ∼10:1 anti-sunward, field-aligned flows and beams closer to the HCS that become nearly isotropic farther from the HCS; (4) the He spectrum steepens either side of the HCS, and the He, O, and Fe spectra exhibit power laws of the form ∼ E −4 – E 6 ; and (5) maximum energies E X increase with the ion’s charge-to-mass ( Q / M ) ratio as E X / E H ∝ ( Q X / M X ) δ , where δ ∼ 0.65–0.76, assuming that the average Q states are similar to those measured in gradual and impulsive solar energetic particle events at 1 au. Themore »absence of velocity dispersion in combination with strong field-aligned anisotropies closer to the HCS appears to rule out solar flares and near-Sun coronal-mass-ejection-driven shocks. These new observations present challenges not only for mechanisms that employ direct parallel electric fields and organize maximum energies according to E / Q but also for local diffusive and magnetic-reconnection-driven acceleration models. Reevaluation of our current understanding of the production and transport of energetic ions is necessary to understand this near-solar, current-sheet-associated population of ST ions.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023