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  1. Abstract

    We present the average rest-frame spectrum of the final catalog of dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) selected from the South Pole Telescope's SPT-SZ survey and measured with Band 3 of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. This work builds on the previous average rest-frame spectrum, given in Spilker et al. (2014) for the first 22 sources, and is comprised of a total of 78 sources, normalized by their respective apparent dust masses. The spectrum spans 1.9 <z< 6.9 and covers rest-frame frequencies of 240–800 GHz. Combining this data with low-JCO observations from the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we detect multiple bright line features from12CO, [Ci], and H2O, as well as fainter molecular transitions from13CO, HCN, HCO+, HNC, CN, H2O+, and CH. We use these detections, along with limits from other molecules, to characterize the typical properties of the interstellar medium (ISM) for these high-redshift DSFGs. We are able to divide the large sample into subsets in order to explore how the average spectrum changes with various galaxy properties, such as effective dust temperature. We find that systems with hotter dust temperatures exhibit differences in the bright12CO emission lines, and contain either warmer and more excited dense gas tracers or larger dense gas reservoirs. These observations will serve as a reference point to studies of the ISM in distant luminous DSFGs (LIR> 1012L), and will inform studies of chemical evolution before the peak epoch of star formation atz= 2–3.

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  2. High-redshift dusty star-forming galaxies with very high star formation rates (500−3000 M ⊙ yr −1 ) are key to understanding the formation of the most extreme galaxies in the early Universe. Characterising the gas reservoir of these systems can reveal the driving factor behind the high star formation. Using molecular gas tracers such as, high- J CO lines, neutral carbon lines, and the dust continuum, we can estimate the gas density and radiation field intensity in their interstellar media. In this paper, we present high resolution (∼0.4″) observations of CO(7−6), [CI](2−1), and dust continuum of three lensed galaxies from the South pole telescope – sub-millimetre galaxies (SPT-SMG) sample at z  ∼ 3 with the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array. Our sources have high intrinsic star formation rates (> 850 M ⊙ yr −1 ) and rather short depletion timescales (< 100 Myr). Based on the L [CI](2−1) / L CO(7 − 6) and L [CI](2−1) / L IR ratios, our galaxy sample has similar radiation field intensities and gas densities compared to other submillimetre galaxies. We performed visibility-based lens modelling on these objects to reconstruct the kinematics in the source plane. We find that the cold gas masses of the sources are compatible with simple dynamical mass estimates using ULIRG-like values of the CO-H 2 conversion factor α CO , but not Milky Way-like values. We find diverse source kinematics in our sample: SPT0103−45 and SPT2147−50 are likely rotating disks, while SPT2357−51 is possibly a major merger. The analysis presented in the paper could be extended to a larger sample to determine better statistics of morphologies and interstellar medium properties of high- z dusty star-forming galaxies. 
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  3. It is often said that computer science is for all students. This implies that it is also for early childhood students, including preschoolers, kindergarteners, and early elementary schoolers. To integrate computer science education into early childhood education, it is necessary to prepare early childhood teachers to do so. In this study, we investigated how and why 15 preservice, early childhood teachers reacted to and addressed challenges when creating block-based programming to control robots. Data sources included classroom recordings, interviews, lesson artifacts, and questionnaires. Analysis strategies included open and axial coding. Findings on hypothesis generation, guess-and-check practice, stereotypical conception, and adaptive attribution to success in programming are discussed. 
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  4. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT We present Gemini-S and Spitzer-IRAC optical-through-near-IR observations in the field of the SPT2349-56 proto-cluster at z = 4.3. We detect optical/IR counterparts for only 9 of the 14 submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) previously identified by ALMA in the core of SPT2349-56. In addition, we detect four z ∼ 4 Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) in the 30 arcsec-diameter region surrounding this proto-cluster core. Three of the four LBGs are new systems, while one appears to be a counterpart of one of the nine observed SMGs. We identify a candidate brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) with a stellar mass of $(3.2^{+2.3}_{-1.4})\times 10^{11}$ M⊙. The stellar masses of the eight other SMGs place them on, above, and below the main sequence of star formation at z ≈ 4.5. The cumulative stellar mass for the SPT2349-56 core is at least (12.2 ± 2.8) × 1011 M⊙, a sizeable fraction of the stellar mass in local BCGs, and close to the universal baryon fraction (0.19) relative to the virial mass of the core (1013 M⊙). As all 14 of these SMGs are destined to quickly merge, we conclude that the proto-cluster core has already developed a significant stellar mass at this early stage, comparable to z = 1 BCGs. Importantly, we also find that the SPT2349-56 core structure would be difficult to uncover in optical surveys, with none of the ALMA sources being easily identifiable or constrained through g, r, and i colour selection in deep optical surveys and only a modest overdensity of LBGs over the more extended structure. SPT2349-56 therefore represents a truly dust-obscured phase of a massive cluster core under formation. 
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  5. null (Ed.)
  6. Abstract

    The next core-collapse supernova in the Milky Way or its satellites will represent a once-in-a-generation opportunity to obtain detailed information about the explosion of a star and provide significant scientific insight for a variety of fields because of the extreme conditions found within. Supernovae in our galaxy are not only rare on a human timescale but also happen at unscheduled times, so it is crucial to be ready and use all available instruments to capture all possible information from the event. The first indication of a potential stellar explosion will be the arrival of a bright burst of neutrinos. Its observation by multiple detectors worldwide can provide an early warning for the subsequent electromagnetic fireworks, as well as signal to other detectors with significant backgrounds so they can store their recent data. The supernova early warning system (SNEWS) has been operating as a simple coincidence between neutrino experiments in automated mode since 2005. In the current era of multi-messenger astronomy there are new opportunities for SNEWS to optimize sensitivity to science from the next galactic supernova beyond the simple early alert. This document is the product of a workshop in June 2019 towards design of SNEWS 2.0, an upgraded SNEWS with enhanced capabilities exploiting the unique advantages of prompt neutrino detection to maximize the science gained from such a valuable event.

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  7. Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Antartica , Cladosporium austrolitorale from coastal sea sand. Australia , Austroboletus yourkae on soil, Crepidotus innuopurpureus on dead wood, Curvularia stenotaphri from roots and leaves of Stenotaphrum secundatum and Thecaphora stajsicii from capsules of Oxalis radicosa. Belgium , Paraxerochrysium coryli (incl. Paraxerochrysium gen. nov.) from Corylus avellana. Brazil , Calvatia nordestina on soil, Didymella tabebuiicola from leaf spots on Tabebuia aurea, Fusarium subflagellisporum from hypertrophied floral and vegetative branches of Mangifera indica and Microdochium maculosum from living leaves of Digitaria insularis. Canada , Cuphophyllus bondii fromagrassland. Croatia , Mollisia inferiseptata from a rotten Laurus nobilis trunk. Cyprus , Amanita exilis oncalcareoussoil. Czech Republic , Cytospora hippophaicola from wood of symptomatic Vaccinium corymbosum. Denmark , Lasiosphaeria deviata on pieces of wood and herbaceousdebris. Dominican Republic , Calocybella goethei among grass on a lawn. France (Corsica) , Inocybe corsica onwetground. France (French Guiana) , Trechispora patawaensis on decayed branch of unknown angiosperm tree and Trechispora subregularis on decayed log of unknown angiosperm tree. Germany , Paramicrothecium sambuci (incl. Paramicrothecium gen. nov.)ondeadstemsof Sambucus nigra. India , Aureobasidium microtermitis from the gut of a Microtermes sp. termite, Laccaria diospyricola on soil and Phylloporia tamilnadensis on branches of Catunaregam spinosa . Iran , Pythium serotinoosporum from soil under Prunus dulcis. Italy , Pluteus brunneovenosus on twigs of broad leaved trees on the ground. Japan , Heterophoma rehmanniae on leaves of Rehmannia glutinosa f. hueichingensis. Kazakhstan , Murispora kazachstanica from healthy roots of Triticum aestivum. Namibia , Caespitomonium euphorbiae (incl. Caespitomonium gen. nov.)from stems of an Euphorbia sp. Netherlands , Alfaria junci, Myrmecridium junci, Myrmecridium juncicola, Myrmecridium juncigenum, Ophioceras junci, Paradinemasporium junci (incl. Paradinemasporium gen. nov.), Phialoseptomonium junci, Sporidesmiella juncicola, Xenopyricularia junci and Zaanenomyces quadripartis (incl. Zaanenomyces gen. nov.), fromdeadculmsof Juncus effusus, Cylindromonium everniae and Rhodoveronaea everniae from Evernia prunastri, Cyphellophora sambuci and Myrmecridium sambuci from Sambucus nigra, Kiflimonium junci, Saro cladium junci, Zaanenomyces moderatricis academiae and Zaanenomyces versatilis from dead culms of Juncus inflexus, Microcera physciae from Physcia tenella, Myrmecridium dactylidis from dead culms of Dactylis glomerata, Neochalara spiraeae and Sporidesmium spiraeae from leaves of Spiraea japonica, Neofabraea salicina from Salix sp., Paradissoconium narthecii (incl. Paradissoconium gen. nov.)from dead leaves of Narthecium ossifragum, Polyscytalum vaccinii from Vaccinium myrtillus, Pseudosoloacrosporiella cryptomeriae (incl. Pseudosoloacrosporiella gen. nov.)fromleavesof Cryptomeria japonica, Ramularia pararhabdospora from Plantago lanceolata, Sporidesmiella pini from needles of Pinus sylvestris and Xenoacrodontium juglandis (incl. Xenoacrodontium gen. nov. and Xenoacrodontiaceae fam. nov.)from Juglans regia . New Zealand , Cryptometrion metrosideri from twigs of Metrosideros sp., Coccomyces pycnophyllocladi from dead leaves of Phyllocladus alpinus, Hypoderma aliforme from fallen leaves Fuscopora solandri and Hypoderma subiculatum from dead leaves Phormium tenax. Norway , Neodevriesia kalakoutskii from permafrost and Variabilispora viridis from driftwood of Picea abies. Portugal , Entomortierella hereditatis from abio film covering adeteriorated limestone wall. Russia , Colpoma junipericola from needles of Juniperus sabina, Entoloma cinnamomeum on soil in grasslands, Entoloma verae on soil in grasslands, Hyphodermella pallidostraminea on a dry dead branch of Actinidia sp., Lepiota sayanensis onlitterinamixedforest, Papiliotrema horticola from Malus communis , Paramacroventuria ribis (incl. Paramacroventuria gen. nov.)fromleaves of Ribes aureum and Paramyrothecium lathyri from leaves of Lathyrus tuberosus. South Africa , Harzia combreti from leaf litter of Combretum collinum ssp. sulvense, Penicillium xyleborini from Xyleborinus saxesenii , Phaeoisaria dalbergiae from bark of Dalbergia armata, Protocreopsis euphorbiae from leaf litter of Euphorbia ingens and Roigiella syzygii from twigs of Syzygium chordatum . Spain , Genea zamorana on sandy soil, Gymnopus nigrescens on Scleropodium touretii, Hesperomyces parexochomi on Parexochomus quadriplagiatus, Paraphoma variabilis from dung, Phaeococcomyces kinklidomatophilus from a blackened metal railing of an industrial warehouse and Tuber suaveolens in soil under Quercus faginea. Svalbard and Jan Mayen , Inocybe nivea associated with Salix polaris. Thailand , Biscogniauxia whalleyi oncorticatedwood. UK , Parasitella quercicola from Quercus robur. USA , Aspergillus arizonicus from indoor air in a hospital, Caeliomyces tampanus (incl. Caeliomyces gen. nov.)fromoffice dust, Cippumomyces mortalis (incl. Cippumomyces gen. nov.)fromatombstone, Cylindrium desperesense from air in a store, Tetracoccosporium pseudoaerium from air sample in house, Toxicocladosporium glendoranum from air in a brick room, Toxicocladosporium losalamitosense from air in a classroom, Valsonectria portsmouthensis from airinmen'slockerroomand Varicosporellopsis americana from sludge in a water reservoir. Vietnam , Entoloma kovalenkoi on rotten wood, Fusarium chuoi inside seed of Musa itinerans , Micropsalliota albofelina on soil in tropical evergreen mixed forest sand Phytophthora docyniae from soil and roots of Docynia indica. Morphological and culture characteristics are supported by DNA barcodes. 
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  8. The UCNA experiment was designed to measure the neutron β-asymmetry parameter A 0 using polarized ultracold neutrons (UCN). UCN produced via downscattering in solid deuterium were polarized via transport through a 7 T magnetic field, and then directed to a 1 T solenoidal electron spectrometer, where the decay electrons were detected in electron detector packages located on the two ends of the spectrometer. A value for A 0 was then extracted from the asymmetry in the numbers of counts in the two detector packages. We summarize all of the results from the UCNA experiment, obtained during run periods in 2007, 2008–2009, 2010, and 2011–2013, which ultimately culminated in a 0.67% precision result for A 0 . 
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