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  1. Abstract

    AT 2020mot is a typical UV/optical tidal disruption event (TDE) with no radio or X-ray signatures in a quiescent host. We find ani-band excess and rebrightening along the decline of the light curve which could be due to two consecutive dust echoes from the TDE. We model our observations following van Velzen et al. and find that the near-infrared light curve can be explained by concentric rings of thin dust within ∼0.1 pc of a ∼6 × 106Msupermassive black hole (SMBH), among the smallest scales at which dust has been inferred near SMBHs. We find dust covering factors of orderfc≤ 2%, much lower than found for dusty tori of active galactic nuclei. These results highlight the potential of TDEs for uncovering the environments around black holes when including near-infrared observations in high-cadence transient studies.

     
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  2. Abstract We present 1.3 mm (230 GHz) observations of the recent and nearby Type II supernova, SN 2023ixf, obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) at 2.6–18.6 days after explosion. The observations were obtained as part the SMA Large Program, POETS (Pursuit of Extragalactic Transients with the SMA). We do not detect any emission at the location of SN 2023ixf, with the deepest limits of L ν (230 GHz) ≲ 8.6 × 10 25 erg s −1 Hz −1 at 2.7 and 7.7 days, and L ν (230 GHz) ≲ 3.4 × 10 25 erg s −1 Hz −1 at 18.6 days. These limits are about a factor of 2 times dimmer than the millimeter emission from SN 2011dh (IIb), about 1 order of magnitude dimmer compared to SN 1993J (IIb) and SN 2018ivc (IIL), and about 30 times dimmer than the most luminous nonrelativistic SNe in the millimeter band (Type IIb/Ib/Ic). Using these limits in the context of analytical models that include synchrotron self-absorption and free–free absorption, we place constraints on the proximate circumstellar medium around the progenitor star, to a scale of ∼2 × 10 15 cm, excluding the range M ̇ ∼ few × 10 − 6 − 10 − 2 M ⊙ yr −1 (for a wind velocity, v w = 115 km s −1 , and ejecta velocity, v ej ∼ (1 − 2) × 10 4 km s −1 ). These results are consistent with an inference of the mass-loss rate based on optical spectroscopy (∼2 × 10 −2 M ⊙ yr −1 for v w = 115 km s −1 ), but are in tension with the inference from hard X-rays (∼7 × 10 −4 M ⊙ yr −1 for v w = 115 km s −1 ). This tension may be alleviated by a nonhomogeneous and confined CSM, consistent with results from high-resolution optical spectroscopy. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  3. Abstract

    In 2019 November, we began operating Finding Luminous and Exotic Extragalactic Transients (FLEET), a machine-learning algorithm designed to photometrically identify Type I superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) in transient alert streams. Through this observational campaign, we spectroscopically classified 21 of the 50 SLSNe identified worldwide between 2019 November and 2022 January. Based on our original algorithm, we anticipated that FLEET would achieve a purity of about 50% for transients with a probability of being an SLSN,P(SLSN-I) > 0.5; the true on-sky purity we obtained is closer to 80%. Similarly, we anticipated FLEET could reach a completeness of about 30%, and we indeed measure an upper limit on the completeness of ≲33%. Here we present FLEET 2.0, an updated version of FLEET trained on 4780 transients (almost three times more than FLEET 1.0). FLEET 2.0 has a similar predicted purity to FLEET 1.0 but outperforms FLEET 1.0 in terms of completeness, which is now closer to ≈40% for transients withP(SLSN-I) > 0.5. Additionally, we explore the possible systematics that might arise from the use of FLEET for target selection. We find that the population of SLSNe recovered by FLEET is mostly indistinguishable from the overall SLSN population in terms of physical and most observational parameters. We provide FLEET as an open source package on GitHub: https://github.com/gmzsebastian/FLEET.

     
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  4. Abstract

    We present the discovery of the Type II supernova SN 2023ixf in M101 and follow-up photometric and spectroscopic observations, respectively, in the first month and week of its evolution. Our discovery was made within a day of estimated first light, and the following light curve is characterized by a rapid rise (≈5 days) to a luminous peak (MV≈ − 18.2 mag) and plateau (MV≈ − 17.6 mag) extending to 30 days with a fast decline rate of ≈0.03 mag day−1. During the rising phase,UVcolor shows blueward evolution, followed by redward evolution in the plateau phase. Prominent flash features of hydrogen, helium, carbon, and nitrogen dominate the spectra up to ≈5 days after first light, with a transition to a higher ionization state in the first ≈2 days. Both theUVcolor and flash ionization states suggest a rise in the temperature, indicative of a delayed shock breakout inside dense circumstellar material (CSM). From the timescales of CSM interaction, we estimate its compact radial extent of ∼(3–7) × 1014cm. We then construct numerical light-curve models based on both continuous and eruptive mass-loss scenarios shortly before explosion. For the continuous mass-loss scenario, we infer a range of mass-loss history with 0.1–1.0Myr−1in the final 2−1 yr before explosion, with a potentially decreasing mass loss of 0.01–0.1Myr−1in ∼0.7–0.4 yr toward the explosion. For the eruptive mass-loss scenario, we favor eruptions releasing 0.3–1Mof the envelope at about a year before explosion, which result in CSM with mass and extent similar to the continuous scenario. We discuss the implications of the available multiwavelength constraints obtained thus far on the progenitor candidate and SN 2023ixf to our variable CSM models.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  5. We present a comparative study of two nearby type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), 2018xx and 2019gbx, that exploded in NGC 4767 and MCG-02-33-017 at a distance of 48 Mpc and 60 Mpc, respectively. The B -band light curve decline rate for SN 2018xx is estimated to be 1.48 ± 0.07 mag and for SN 2019gbx it is 1.37 ± 0.07 mag. Despite the similarities in photometric evolution, quasi-bolometric luminosity, and spectroscopy between these two SNe Ia, SN 2018xx has been found to be fainter by about ∼0.38 mag in the B -band and has a lower 56 Ni yield. Their host galaxies have similar metallicities at the SN location, indicating that the differences between these two SNe Ia may be associated with the higher progenitor metallicity of SN 2018xx. Further inspection of the near-maximum-light spectra has revealed that SN 2018xx has relatively strong absorption features near 4300 Å relative to SN 2019gbx. The application of the code TARDIS fitting to the above features indicates that the absorption features near 4300 Å appear to be related to not only Fe  II /Mg  II abundance but possibly to the other element abundances as well. Moreover, SN 2018xx shows a weaker carbon absorption at earlier times, which is also consistent with higher ejecta metallicity. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  6. Abstract

    We present high-cadence photometric and spectroscopic observations of SN 2023axu, a classical Type II supernova with an absoluteV-band peak magnitude of –17.2 ± 0.1 mag. SN 2023axu was discovered by the Distance Less Than 40 Mpc (DLT40) survey within 1 day of the last nondetection in the nearby galaxy NGC 2283 at 13.7 Mpc. We modeled the early light curve using a recently updated shock cooling model that includes the effects of line blanketing and found the explosion epoch to be MJD 59971.48 ± 0.03 and the probable progenitor to be a red supergiant. The shock cooling model underpredicts the overall UV data, which point to a possible interaction with circumstellar material. This interpretation is further supported by spectral behavior. We see a ledge feature around 4600 Å in the very early spectra (+1.1 and +1.5 days after the explosion), which can be a sign of circumstellar interaction. The signs of circumstellar material are further bolstered by the presence of absorption features blueward of Hαand Hβat day >40, which is also generally attributed to circumstellar interaction. Our analysis shows the need for high-cadence early photometric and spectroscopic data to decipher the mass-loss history of the progenitor.

     
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  7. Abstract We present the optical photometric and spectroscopic analysis of two Type Iax supernovae (SNe), 2018cni and 2020kyg. SN 2018cni is a bright Type Iax SN ( M V ,peak = −17.81 ± 0.21 mag), whereas SN 2020kyg ( M V ,peak = −14.52 ± 0.21 mag) is a faint one. We derive 56 Ni mass of 0.07 and 0.002 M ⊙ and ejecta mass of 0.48 and 0.14 M ⊙ for SNe 2018cni and 2020kyg, respectively. A combined study of the bright and faint Type Iax SNe in R / r -band reveals that the brighter objects tend to have a longer rise time. However, the correlation between the peak luminosity and decline rate shows that bright and faint Type Iax SNe exhibit distinct behavior. Comparison with standard deflagration models suggests that SN 2018cni is consistent with the deflagration of a CO white dwarf, whereas the properties of SN 2020kyg can be better explained by the deflagration of a hybrid CONe white dwarf. The spectral features of both the SNe point to the presence of similar chemical species but with different mass fractions. Our spectral modeling indicates stratification at the outer layers and mixed inner ejecta for both of the SNe. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  8. Abstract

    Type Ibn supernovae (SNe) are a rare class of stellar explosions whose progenitor systems are not yet well determined. We present and analyze observations of the Type Ibn SN 2019kbj, and model its light curve in order to constrain its progenitor and explosion parameters. SN 2019kbj shows roughly constant temperature during the first month after peak, indicating a power source (likely circumstellar material interaction) that keeps the continuum emission hot at ∼15,000 K. Indeed, we find that the radioactive decay of56Ni is disfavored as the sole power source of the bolometric light curve. A radioactive decay + circumstellar material (CSM) interaction model, on the other hand, does reproduce the bolometric emission well. The fits prefer a uniform-density CSM shell rather than CSM due to a steady mass-loss wind, similar to what is seen in other Type Ibn SNe. The uniform-density CSM shell model requires ∼0.1Mof56Ni and ∼1Mtotal ejecta mass to reproduce the light curve. SN 2019kbj differs in this manner from another Type Ibn SN with derived physical parameters, SN 2019uo, for which an order of magnitude lower56Ni mass and larger ejecta mass were derived. This points toward a possible diversity in SN Ibn progenitor systems and explosions.

     
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  9. Abstract SN 2018ivc is an unusual Type II supernova (SN II). It is a variant of SNe IIL, which might represent a transitional case between SNe IIP with a massive H-rich envelope and SNe IIb with only a small amount of the H-rich envelope. However, SN 2018ivc shows an optical light-curve evolution more complicated than that of canonical SNe IIL. In this paper, we present the results of prompt follow-up observations of SN 2018ivc with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. Its synchrotron emission is similar to that of SN IIb 1993J, suggesting that it is intrinsically an SN IIb–like explosion of an He star with a modest (∼0.5–1 M ⊙ ) extended H-rich envelope. Its radio, optical, and X-ray light curves are explained primarily by the interaction between the SN ejecta and the circumstellar material (CSM); we thus suggest that it is a rare example (and the first involving the “canonical” SN IIb ejecta) for which the multiwavelength emission is powered mainly by the SN–CSM interaction. The inner CSM density, reflecting the progenitor activity in the final decade, is comparable to that of SN IIb 2013cu, which shows a flash spectral feature. The outer CSM density, and therefore the mass-loss rate in the final ∼200 yr, is higher than that of SN 1993J by a factor of ∼5. We suggest that SN 2018ivc represents a missing link between SNe IIP and SNe IIb/Ib/Ic in the binary evolution scenario. 
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  10. Abstract We present near-infrared (NIR) and optical observations of the Type Ic supernova (SN Ic) SN 2021krf obtained between days 13 and 259 at several ground-based telescopes. The NIR spectrum at day 68 exhibits a rising K -band continuum flux density longward of ∼2.0 μ m, and a late-time optical spectrum at day 259 shows strong [O i ] 6300 and 6364 Å emission-line asymmetry, both indicating the presence of dust, likely formed in the SN ejecta. We estimate a carbon-grain dust mass of ∼2 × 10 −5 M ⊙ and a dust temperature of ∼900–1200 K associated with this rising continuum and suggest the dust has formed in SN ejecta. Utilizing the one-dimensional multigroup radiation-hydrodynamics code STELLA, we present two degenerate progenitor solutions for SN 2021krf, characterized by C–O star masses of 3.93 and 5.74 M ⊙ , but with the same best-fit 56 Ni mass of 0.11 M ⊙ for early times (0–70 days). At late times (70–300 days), optical light curves of SN 2021krf decline substantially more slowly than those expected from 56 Co radioactive decay. Lack of H and He lines in the late-time SN spectrum suggests the absence of significant interaction of the ejecta with the circumstellar medium. We reproduce the entire bolometric light curve with a combination of radioactive decay and an additional powering source in the form of a central engine of a millisecond pulsar with a magnetic field smaller than that of a typical magnetar. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024