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  1. Abstract

    We consider, for the first time, the effects of strong capacitive and inductive coupling between radio frequency superconducting quantum interference devices (rf SQUIDs) in an overlapping metamaterial geometry when driven by rf flux at and near their self-resonant frequencies. The equations of motion for the gauge-invariant phases on the Josephson junctions in each SQUID are set up and solved. Our model accounts for the high-frequency displacement currents through capacitive overlap between the wiring of SQUID loops. We begin by modeling two overlapping SQUIDs and studying the response in both the linear and nonlinear high-frequency driving limits. By exploring a sequence of more and more complicated arrays, the formalism is eventually extended to theN×N×2overlapping metamaterial array, where we develop an understanding of the many (8N28N+3) resulting resonant modes in terms of three classes of resonances. The capacitive coupling gives rise to qualitatively new self-resonant responses of rf SQUID metamaterials, and is demonstrated through analytical theory, numerical modeling, and experiment in the 10–30 GHz range on capacitively and inductively coupled rf SQUID metamaterials.

     
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  2. The optical power spectrum is the prime observable to dissect, understand, and design the long- time behavior of small and large arrays of optically coupled semiconductor lasers. A long-standing issue has been identified within the literature of injection locking in photonic oscillators: first how the thickness of linewidth and the lineshape spectral envelope correlates with the deterministic evolution of the monochromatic injected laser oscillator and second how the presence of noise and the typically dense proximity in phase space of coexisting limit cycles of the coupled system are shaping and influencing the overall spectral behavior. In addition, we are critically interested in the regions where the basin of attraction has a fractal-like structure, still, the long-time orbits are P1 (period 1) and/or P3 (period 3) limit cycles. Numerically computed evidence shows that, when the coupled system lives in the regions of coexisting isolas and four-wave mixing (FWM) limit cycles, the overall optical power spectrum is deeply imprinted by a strong influence from the underlying noise sources. A particularly intriguing observation in this region of parameter space that we examine is that the isolas draw most of the trajectories on its phase space path.

     
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