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  1. Abstract

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations with a 800 au resolution and radiative-transfer modeling of the inner part (r≈ 6000 au) of the ionized accretion flow around a compact star cluster in formation at the center of the luminous ultracompact Hiiregion G10.6-0.4. We modeled the flow with an ionized Keplerian disk with and without radial motions in its outer part, or with an external Ulrich envelope. The Markov Chain Monte Carlo fits to the data give total stellar massesMfrom 120 to 200M, with much smaller ionized-gas massesMion-gas= 0.2–0.25M. The stellar mass is distributed within the gravitational radiusRg≈ 1000 to 1500 au, where the ionized gas is bound. The viewing inclination angle from the face-on orientation isi= 49°–56°. Radial motions at radiir>Rgconverge tovr,0≈ 8.7 km s−1, or about the speed of sound of ionized gas, indicating that this gas is marginally unbound at most. From additional constraints on the ionizing-photon rate and far-IR luminosity of the region, we conclude that the stellar cluster consists of a few massive stars withMstar= 32–60M, or one star in this range of masses accompanied by a population of lower-mass stars. Any active accretion of ionized gas onto the massive (proto)stars is residual. Themore »inferred cluster density is very large, comparable to that reported at similar scales in the Galactic center. Stellar interactions are likely to occur within the next million years.

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  2. Abstract We present the first detailed polarimetric studies of Cygnus A at 230 GHz with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) to constrain the mass accretion rate onto its supermassive black hole. We detected the polarized emission associated with the core at a fractional polarization of . This low fractional polarization suggests that the polarized emission is highly depolarized. One of the possible explanations is due to a significant variance in the Faraday rotation measure within the synthesized beam. By assuming the Faraday depolarization caused by inhomogeneous column density of the magnetized plasma associated with the surrounding radiatively-inefficient accretion flow within the SMA beam, we derived the constraint on the mass accretion rate to be larger than 0.15 yr −1 at the Bondi radius. The derived constraint indicates that an adiabatic inflow–outflow solution or an advection-dominated accretion flow should be preferable as the accretion flow model in order to explain the jet power of Cygnus A.
  3. ABSTRACT The youngest, closest, and most compact embedded massive star cluster known excites the supernebula in the nearby dwarf galaxy NGC 5253. It is a crucial target and test case for studying the birth and evolution of the most massive star clusters. We present observations of the ionized gas in this source with high spatial and spectral resolution. The data include continuum images of free–free emission with ≈0.15 arcsec resolution made with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) at 15, 22, and 33 GHz, and a full data cube of the [S iv] 10.5 μm  fine-structure emission line with ≈4.5 km s−1 velocity resolution and 0.3 arcsec beam, obtained with the Texas Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph (TEXES) on Gemini North. We find that (1) the ionized gas extends out from the cluster in arms or jets, and (2) the ionized gas comprises two components offset both spatially and in velocity. We discuss mechanisms that may have created the observed velocity field; possibilities include large-scale jets or a subcluster falling on to the main source.