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    Optical spectropolarimetry of the normal thermonuclear supernova (SN) 2019np from −14.5 to +14.5 d relative to B-band maximum detected an intrinsic continuum polarization (pcont) of 0.21 ± 0.09 per cent at the first epoch. Between days −11.5 and  +0.5, pcont remained ∼0 and by day +14.5 was again significant at 0.19 ± 0.10 per cent. Not considering the first epoch, the dominant axis of ${\rm Si\, {\small II}}$ λ6355 was roughly constant staying close the continuum until both rotated in opposite directions on day  +14.5. Detailed radiation-hydrodynamical simulations produce a very steep density slope in the outermost ejecta so that the low first-epoch pcont ≈ 0.2 per cent nevertheless suggests a separate structure with an axis ratio ∼2 in the outer carbon-rich (3.5–4) × 10−3 M⊙. Large-amplitude fluctuations in the polarization profiles and a flocculent appearance of the polar diagram for the ${\rm Ca\, {\small II}}$ near-infrared triplet (NIR3) may be related by a common origin. The temporal evolution of the polarization spectra agrees with an off-centre delayed detonation. The late-time increase in polarization and the possible change in position angle are also consistent with an aspherical 56Ni core. The pcont and the absorptions due to ${\rm Si\, {\small II}}$ λ6355 and ${\rm Ca\, {\small II}}$ NIR3 formmore »in the same region of the extended photosphere, with an interplay between line occultation and thermalization producing p. Small-scale polarization features may be due to small-scale structures, but many could be related to atomic patterns of the quasi-continuum; they hardly have an equivalent in the total-flux spectra. We compare SN 2019np to other SNe and develop future objectives and strategies for SN Ia spectropolarimetry.

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  2. Abstract We present a study of the influence of magnetic field strength and morphology in Type Ia supernovae and their late-time light curves and spectra. In order to both capture self-consistent magnetic field topologies and evolve our models to late times, a two-stage approach is taken. We study the early deflagration phase (∼1 s) using a variety of magnetic field strengths and find that the topology of the field is set by the burning, independent of the initial strength. We study late-time (∼1000 days) light curves and spectra with a variety of magnetic field topologies and infer magnetic field strengths from observed supernovae. Lower limits are found to be 10 6 G. This is determined by the escape, or lack thereof, of positrons that are tied to the magnetic field. The first stage employs 3D MHD and a local burning approximation and uses the code Enzo. The second stage employs a hybrid approach, with 3D radiation and positron transport and spherical hydrodynamics. The second stage uses the code HYDRA. In our models, magnetic field amplification remains small during the early deflagration phase. Late-time spectra bear the imprint of both magnetic field strength and morphology. Implications for alternative explosion scenarios aremore »discussed.« less
  3. Abstract

    We present new 0.3–21μm photometry of SN 2021aefx in the spiral galaxy NGC 1566 at +357 days afterB-band maximum, including the first detection of any Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) at >15μm. These observations follow earlier JWST observations of SN 2021aefx at +255 days after the time of maximum brightness, allowing us to probe the temporal evolution of the emission properties. We measure the fraction of flux emerging at different wavelengths and its temporal evolution. Additionally, the integrated 0.3–14μm decay rate of Δm0.3–14= 1.35 ± 0.05 mag/100 days is higher than the decline rate from the radioactive decay of56Co of ∼1.2 mag/100 days. The most plausible explanation for this discrepancy is that flux is shifting to >14μm, and future JWST observations of SNe Ia will be able to directly test this hypothesis. However, models predicting nonradiative energy loss cannot be excluded with the present data.


    Long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) are associated to the collapse of a massive star and the formation of a relativistic jet. As the jet propagates through the star, it forms an extended, hot cocoon. The dynamical evolution of the jet/cocoon system and its interaction with the environment has been studied extensively both analytically and numerically. On the other hand, the role played by the supernova (SN) explosion associated with LGRBs in determining the outcome of the system has been barely considered. In this paper, we discuss the large landscape of outcomes resulting from the interaction of the SN, jet, and cocoon. We show that the outcome depends mainly on three time-scales: the times for the cocoon and SN shock wave to break through the surface of the progenitor star, and the time needed for the cocoon to engulf completely the progenitor star. The delay between the launch of the SN shock moving through the progenitor star and the jet can be related to these three time-scales. Depending on the ordering of these time-scales, the jet-cocoon might propagate inside the SN ejecta or the other way around, and the outcome for the properties of the explosion would be different. We discussmore »the imprint of the complex interaction between the jet-cocoon and the SN shock on the emergent thermal and non-thermal radiation.

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  5. Abstract

    We present JWST near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopic observations of the nearby normal Type Ia supernova (SN) SN 2021aefx in the nebular phase at +255 days past maximum light. Our Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) and Mid Infrared Instrument observations, combined with ground-based optical data from the South African Large Telescope, constitute the first complete optical+NIR+MIR nebular SN Ia spectrum covering 0.3–14μm. This spectrum unveils the previously unobserved 2.5−5μm region, revealing strong nebular iron and stable nickel emission, indicative of high-density burning that can constrain the progenitor mass. The data show a significant improvement in sensitivity and resolution compared to previous Spitzer MIR data. We identify numerous NIR and MIR nebular emission lines from iron-group elements as well as lines from the intermediate-mass element argon. The argon lines extend to higher velocities than the iron-group elements, suggesting stratified ejecta that are a hallmark of delayed-detonation or double-detonation SN Ia models. We present fits to simple geometric line profiles to features beyond 1.2μm and find that most lines are consistent with Gaussian or spherical emission distributions, while the [Ariii] 8.99μm line has a distinctively flat-topped profile indicating a thick spherical shell of emission. Using our line profile fits, we investigatemore »the emissivity structure of SN 2021aefx and measure kinematic properties. Continued observations of SN 2021aefx and other SNe Ia with JWST will be transformative to the study of SN Ia composition, ionization structure, density, and temperature, and will provide important constraints on SN Ia progenitor and explosion models.

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  6. Abstract We present observations of SN 2021csp, the second example of a newly identified type of supernova (SN) hallmarked by strong, narrow, P Cygni carbon features at early times (Type Icn). The SN appears as a fast and luminous blue transient at early times, reaching a peak absolute magnitude of −20 within 3 days due to strong interaction between fast SN ejecta ( v ≈ 30,000 km s −1 ) and a massive, dense, fast-moving C/O wind shed by the WC-like progenitor months before explosion. The narrow-line features disappear from the spectrum 10–20 days after explosion and are replaced by a blue continuum dominated by broad Fe features, reminiscent of Type Ibn and IIn supernovae and indicative of weaker interaction with more extended H/He-poor material. The transient then abruptly fades ∼60 days post-explosion when interaction ceases. Deep limits at later phases suggest minimal heavy-element nucleosynthesis, a low ejecta mass, or both, and imply an origin distinct from that of classical Type Ic SNe. We place SN 2021csp in context with other fast-evolving interacting transients, and discuss various progenitor scenarios: an ultrastripped progenitor star, a pulsational pair-instability eruption, or a jet-driven fallback SN from a Wolf–Rayet (W-R) star. The fallback scenariomore »would naturally explain the similarity between these events and radio-loud fast transients, and suggests a picture in which most stars massive enough to undergo a W-R phase collapse directly to black holes at the end of their lives.« less