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  1. Abstract

    We analyze 5108 AFGKM stars with at least five high-precision radial velocity points, as well as Gaia and Hipparcos astrometric data, utilizing a novel pipeline developed in previous work. We find 914 radial velocity signals with periods longer than 1000 days. Around these signals, 167 cold giants and 68 other types of companions are identified, through combined analyses of radial velocity, astrometry, and imaging data. Without correcting for detection bias, we estimate the minimum occurrence rate of the wide-orbit brown dwarfs to be 1.3%, and find a significant brown-dwarf valley around 40MJup. We also find a power-law distribution in the host binary fraction beyond 3 au, similar to that found for single stars, indicating no preference of multiplicity for brown dwarfs. Our work also reveals nine substellar systems (GJ 234 B, GJ 494 B, HD 13724 b, HD 182488 b, HD 39060 b and c, HD 4113 C, HD 42581 d, HD 7449 B, and HD 984 b) that have previously been directly imaged, and many others that are observable at existing facilities. Depending on their ages, we estimate that an additional 10–57 substellar objects within our sample can be detected with current imaging facilities, extending the imaged coldmore »(or old) giants by an order of magnitude.

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  2. Abstract We present spectroscopic measurements of the Rossiter–McLaughlin effect for WASP-148b, the only known hot Jupiter with a nearby warm-Jupiter companion, from the WIYN/NEID and Keck/HIRES instruments. This is one of the first scientific results reported from the newly commissioned NEID spectrograph, as well as the second obliquity constraint for a hot Jupiter system with a close-in companion, after WASP-47. WASP-148b is consistent with being in alignment with the sky-projected spin axis of the host star, with λ = − 8 .° 2 − 9 .° 7 + 8 .° 7 . The low obliquity observed in the WASP-148 system is consistent with the orderly-alignment configuration of most compact multi-planet systems around cool stars with obliquity constraints, including our solar system, and may point to an early history for these well-organized systems in which migration and accretion occurred in isolation, with relatively little disturbance. By contrast, previous results have indicated that high-mass and hot stars appear to more commonly host a wide range of misaligned planets: not only single hot Jupiters, but also compact systems with multiple super-Earths. We suggest that, to account for the high rate of spin–orbit misalignments in both compact multi-planet and isolated-hot-Jupiter systems orbiting high-mass andmore »hot stars, spin–orbit misalignments may be caused by distant giant planet perturbers, which are most common around these stellar types.« less