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  1. Abstract Binary neutron star mergers (NSMs) have been confirmed as one source of the heaviest observable elements made by the rapid neutron-capture ( r -) process. However, modeling NSM outflows—from the total ejecta masses to their elemental yields—depends on the unknown nuclear equation of state (EOS) that governs neutron star structure. In this work, we derive a phenomenological EOS by assuming that NSMs are the dominant sources of the heavy element material in metal-poor stars with r -process abundance patterns. We start with a population synthesis model to obtain a population of merging neutron star binaries and calculate their EOS-dependent elemental yields. Under the assumption that these mergers were responsible for the majority of r -process elements in the metal-poor stars, we find parameters representing the EOS for which the theoretical NSM yields reproduce the derived abundances from observations of metal-poor stars. For our proof-of-concept assumptions, we find an EOS that is slightly softer than, but still in agreement with, current constraints, e.g., by the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer, with R 1.4 = 12.25 ± 0.03 km and M TOV = 2.17 ± 0.03 M ⊙ (statistical uncertainties, neglecting modeling systematics).
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  2. Abstract We present a nearly complete rapid neutron-capture process ( r -process) chemical inventory of the metal-poor ([Fe/H] = −1.46 ± 0.10) r -process-enhanced ([Eu/Fe] = +1.32 ± 0.08) halo star HD 222925. This abundance set is the most complete for any object beyond the solar system, with a total of 63 metals detected and seven with upper limits. It comprises 42 elements from 31 ≤ Z ≤ 90, including elements rarely detected in r -process-enhanced stars, such as Ga, Ge, As, Se, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au. We derive these abundances from an analysis of 404 absorption lines in ultraviolet spectra collected using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope and previously analyzed optical spectra. A series of appendices discusses the atomic data and quality of fits for these lines. The r -process elements from Ba to Pb, including all elements at the third r -process peak, exhibit remarkable agreement with the solar r -process residuals, with a standard deviation of the differences of only 0.08 dex (17%). In contrast, deviations among the lighter elements from Ga to Te span nearly 1.4 dex, and they show distinct trends frommore »Ga to Se, Nb through Cd, and In through Te. The r -process contribution to Ga, Ge, and As is small, and Se is the lightest element whose production is dominated by the r -process. The lanthanide fraction, log X La = −1.39 ± 0.09, is typical for r -process-enhanced stars and higher than that of the kilonova from the GW170817 neutron-star merger event. We advocate adopting this pattern as an alternative to the solar r -process-element residuals when confronting future theoretical models of heavy-element nucleosynthesis with observations.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  3. null (Ed.)