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  1. Abstract We present the first results from Citizen ASAS-SN, a citizen science project for the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) hosted on the Zooniverse platform. Citizen ASAS-SN utilizes the newer, deeper, higher cadence ASAS-SN g -band data and tasks volunteers to classify periodic variable star candidates based on their phased light curves. We started from 40,640 new variable candidates from an input list of ∼7.4 million stars with δ < −60° and the volunteers identified 10,420 new discoveries which they classified as 4234 pulsating variables, 3132 rotational variables, 2923 eclipsing binaries, and 131 variables flagged as Unknown. They classifiedmore »known variable stars with an accuracy of 89% for pulsating variables, 81% for eclipsing binaries, and 49% for rotational variables. We examine user performance, agreement between users, and compare the citizen science classifications with our machine learning classifier updated for the g -band light curves. In general, user activity correlates with higher classification accuracy and higher user agreement. We used the user’s “Junk” classifications to develop an effective machine learning classifier to separate real from false variables, and there is a clear path for using this “Junk” training set to significantly improve our primary machine learning classifier. We also illustrate the value of Citizen ASAS-SN for identifying unusual variables with several examples.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  2. We present V -band photometry of the 20 000 brightest asteroids using data from the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) between 2012 and 2018. We were able to apply the convex inversion method to more than 5000 asteroids with more than 60 good measurements in order to derive their sidereal rotation periods, spin axis orientations, and shape models. We derive unique spin state and shape solutions for 760 asteroids, including 163 new determinations. This corresponds to a success rate of about 15%, which is significantly higher than the success rate previously achieved using photometry from surveys. We derive themore »first sidereal rotation periods for additional 69 asteroids. We find good agreement in spin periods and pole orientations for objects with prior solutions. We obtain a statistical sample of asteroid physical properties that is sufficient for the detection of several previously known trends, such as the underrepresentation of slow rotators in current databases, and the anisotropic distribution of spin orientations driven by the nongravitational forces. We also investigate the dependence of spin orientations on the rotation period. Since 2018, ASAS-SN has been observing the sky with higher cadence and a deeper limiting magnitude, which will lead to many more new solutions in just a few years.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2022
  3. ABSTRACT We report on the search for electromagnetic counterparts to the nine gravitational-wave events with a >60 per cent probability of containing a neutron star during the third observing run (O3) of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO)–Virgo Collaboration (LVC) with the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN). No optical counterparts associated with a gravitational-wave event were found. However, thanks to its network of telescopes, the average area visible to at least one ASAS-SN site during the first 10 h after the trigger contained ∼30 per cent of the integrated source location probability. Through a combination of normal operations and target-of-opportunity observations, ASAS-SN observations ofmore »the highest probability fields began within 1 h of the trigger for four of the events. After 24 h, ASAS-SN observed >60 per cent of total probability for three events and >40 per cent for all but one of the events. This is the largest area coverage to a depth of g = 18.5 mag from any survey with published coverage statistics for seven of the nine events. With its observing strategy, five sites around the world, and a large field of view, ASAS-SN will be one of the leading surveys to optically search for nearby neutron star mergers during LVC fourth observation run (O4).« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 27, 2022
  4. Abstract There is a long-standing discrepancy between the observed Galactic classical nova rate of ∼10 yr −1 and the predicted rate from Galactic models of ∼30–50 yr −1 . One explanation for this discrepancy is that many novae are hidden by interstellar extinction, but the degree to which dust can obscure novae is poorly constrained. We use newly available all-sky three-dimensional dust maps to compare the brightness and spatial distribution of known novae to that predicted from relatively simple models in which novae trace Galactic stellar mass. We find that only half (53%) of the novae are expected to bemore »easily detectable ( g ≲ 15) with current all-sky optical surveys such as the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN). This fraction is much lower than previously estimated, showing that dust does substantially affect nova detection in the optical. By comparing complementary survey results from the ASAS-SN, OGLE-IV, and Palomar Gattini IR surveys using our modeling, we find a tentative Galactic nova rate of ∼30 yr −1 , though this could be as high as ∼40 yr −1 , depending on the assumed distribution of novae within the Galaxy. These preliminary estimates will be improved in future work through more sophisticated modeling of nova detection in ASAS-SN and other surveys.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2022
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    ABSTRACT The All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae provides long baseline (∼4 yr) V-band light curves for sources brighter than V≲ 17 mag across the whole sky. We produced V-band light curves for a total of ∼61.5 million sources and systematically searched these sources for variability. We identified ∼426 000 variables, including ∼219 000 new discoveries. Most (${\sim }74{ per\ cent}$) of our discoveries are in the Southern hemisphere. Here, we use spectroscopic information from LAMOST, GALAH, RAVE, and APOGEE to study the physical and chemical properties of these variables. We find that metal-poor eclipsing binaries have orbital periods that are shorter than metal-rich systemsmore »at fixed temperature. We identified rotational variables on the main-sequence, red giant branch, and the red clump. A substantial fraction (${\gtrsim }80{ per\ cent}$) of the rotating giants have large $v$rot or large near-ultraviolet excesses also indicative of fast rotation. The rotational variables have unusual abundances suggestive of analysis problems. Semiregular variables tend to be lower metallicity ($\rm [Fe/H]{\sim }-0.5$) than most giant stars. We find that the APOGEE DR16 temperatures of oxygen-rich semiregular variables are strongly correlated with the WRP − WJK colour index for $\rm T_{eff}\lesssim 3800$ K. Using abundance measurements from APOGEE DR16, we find evidence for Mg and N enrichment in the semiregular variables. We find that the Aluminum abundances of the semiregular variables are strongly correlated with the pulsation period, where the variables with $\rm P\gtrsim 60$ d are significantly depleted in Al.« less
  7. ABSTRACT Some young stellar objects such as T Tauri-like ‘dipper’ stars vary due to transient partial occultation by circumstellar dust, and observations of this phenomenon inform us of conditions in the planet-forming zones close to these stars. Although many dipper stars have been identified with space missions such as Kepler/K2, ground-based telescopes offer longer term and multiwavelength perspectives. We identified 11 dipper stars in the Lupus star-forming region in data from the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN), and further characterized these using observations by the Las Cumbres Global Observatory Telescope (LCOGT) and the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), asmore »well as archival data from other missions. Dipper stars were identified from a catalogue of nearby young stars and selected based on the statistical significance, asymmetry, and quasi-periodicity or aperiodicity of variability in their ASAS-SN light curves. All 11 stars lie above or redwards of the zero-age main sequence and have infrared (IR) excesses indicating the presence of full circumstellar discs. We obtain reddening–extinction relations for the variability of seven stars using our combined ASAS-SN-TESS and LCOGT photometry. In all cases, the slopes are below the ISM value, suggesting larger grains, and we find a tentative relation between the slope (grain size) and the $K_\text{s}-[22 \, \mu \text{m}]$ IR colour regarded as a proxy for disc evolutionary state.« less