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Creators/Authors contains: "Holwerda, Benne W."

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    The star formation histories (SFHs) of galactic stellar haloes offer crucial insights into the merger history of the galaxy and the effects of those mergers on their hosts. Such measurements have revealed that while the Milky Way’s most important merger was 8–10 Gyr ago, M31’s largest merger was more recent, within the last few Gyr. Unfortunately, the required halo SFH measurements are extremely observationally expensive outside of the Local Group. Here, we use asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars brighter than the tip of the red giant branch (RGB) to constrain stellar halo SFHs. Both stellar population models and archival data sets show that the AGB/RGB ratio constrains the time before which 90 per cent of the stars formed, t90. We find AGB stars in the haloes of three highly inclined roughly Milky Way-mass galaxies with resolved star measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope; this population is most prominent in the stellar haloes of NGC 253 and NGC 891, suggesting that their stellar haloes contain stars born at relatively late times, with inferred t90 ∼ 6 ± 1.5 Gyr. This ratio also varies from region to region, tending towards higher values along the major axis and in tidal streams or shells. By combining our measurements with previous constraints, we find a tentative anticorrelation between halo age and stellar halo mass, a trend that exists in models of galaxy formation but has never been elucidated before, i.e. the largest stellar haloes of Milky Way-mass galaxies were assembled more recently.

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  2. Abstract

    The selection of high-redshift galaxies often involves spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting to photometric data, an expectation for contamination levels, and measurement of sample completeness—all vetted through comparison to spectroscopic redshift measurements of a sub-sample. The first JWST data are now being taken over several extragalactic fields to different depths and across various areas, which will be ideal for the discovery and classification of galaxies out to distances previously uncharted. As spectroscopic redshift measurements for sources in this epoch will not be initially available to compare with the first photometric measurements ofz> 8 galaxies, robust photometric redshifts are of the utmost importance. Galaxies atz> 8 are expected to have bluer rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) colors than typically used model SED templates, which could lead to catastrophic photometric redshift failures. We use a combination of BPASS andCloudymodels to create a supporting set of templates that match the predicted rest-UV colors ofz> 8 simulated galaxies. We test these new templates by fitting simulated galaxies in a mock catalog, Yung et al., which mimic expected field depths and areas of the JWST Cosmic Evolution Early Release Science Survey (m5σ∼ 28.6 over ∼100 arcmin2). We use EAZY to highlight the improvements in redshift recovery with the inclusion of our new template set and suggest criteria for selecting galaxies at 8 <z< 10 with the JWST, providing an important test case for observers venturing into this new era of astronomy.

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    We present a spectroscopic survey of Ly α emitters in the Extended Groth Strip (EGS) field, targeting the regime near the Epoch of Reionization. Using Keck/DEep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph, we observed 947 high-z candidates with photometric redshifts from 3 < zphot < 7 and down to an H-band (Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 F160W) magnitude limit of <27.5. Observations were taken over the course of eight nights, with integration times ranging from 4 to 7.8 h. Our survey secured 137 unique redshifts, 126 of which are Ly α emitters at 2.8 < z < 6.3 with a mean redshift of $\overline{z} = 4.3$. We provide a comprehensive redshift catalogue for our targets, as well as the reduced one- and two-dimensional spectra for each object. These observations will provide an important auxiliary data set for the JWST Directors Discretionary Early Release Science programme the Cosmic Evolution Early Release Science Survey, which recently completed near- and mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopy of galaxies in the EGS field.

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  4. Abstract

    We investigate spatially resolved emission-line ratios in a sample of 219 galaxies (0.6 <z< 1.3) detected using the G102 grism on the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 taken as part of the CANDELS LyαEmission at Reionization survey to measure ionization profiles and search for low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGN). We analyze [Oiii] and Hβemission-line maps, enabling us to spatially resolve the [Oiii]/Hβemission-line ratio across the galaxies in the sample. We compare the [Oiii]/Hβratio in galaxy centers and outer annular regions to measure ionization differences and investigate the potential of sources with nuclear ionization to host AGN. We investigate some of the individual galaxies that are candidates to host strong nuclear ionization and find that they often have low stellar mass and are undetected in X-rays, as expected for low-luminosity AGN in low-mass galaxies. We do not find evidence for a significant population of off-nuclear AGN or other clumps of off-nuclear ionization. We model the observed distribution of [Oiii]/Hβspatial profiles and find that most galaxies are consistent with a small or zero difference between their nuclear and off-nuclear line ratios, but 6%–16% of galaxies in the sample are likely to host nuclear [Oiii]/Hβthat is ∼0.5 dex higher than in their outer regions. This study is limited by large uncertainties in most of the measured [Oiii]/Hβspatial profiles; therefore, deeper data, e.g., from deeper HST/WFC3 programs or from JWST/NIRISS, are needed to more reliably measure the spatially resolved emission-line conditions of individual high-redshift galaxies.

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    We present a pilot study to assess the potential of Hyper Suprime-Cam Public Data Release 2 (HSC-PDR2) images for the analysis of extended faint structures within groups of galaxies. We examine the intragroup light (IGL) of the group 400138 (Mdyn = 1.3 ± 0.5 × 1013 M⊙, z ∼ 0.2) from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey using Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program Public Data Release 2 (HSC-SSP PDR2) images in g, r, and i bands. We present the most extended IGL measurement to date, reaching down to $\mu _{g}^{\rm {lim}}=30.76$ mag arcsec−2 (3σ; 10 × 10 arcsec2) at a semimajor axis of 275 kpc. The IGL shows mean colour values of g − i = 0.92, g − r = 0.60, and r − i = 0.32 (±0.01). The IGL stellar populations are younger (2–2.5 Gyr) and less metal rich ([Fe/H] ∼ −0.4) than those of the host group galaxies. We find a range of IGL fractions as a function of total group luminosity of ${\sim} 2\!-\!36 {{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ depending on the definition of IGL, with larger fractions the bluer the observation wavelength. The early-type to late-type galaxy ratio suggests that 400138 is a more evolved group, dominated by early-type galaxies, and the IGL fraction agrees with that of other similarly evolved groups. These results are consistent with tidal stripping of the outer parts of Milky Way-like galaxies as the main driver of the IGL build-up. This is supported by the detection of substructure in the IGL towards the galaxy member 1660615 suggesting a recent interaction (<1 Gyr ago) of that galaxy with the core of the group.

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  6. Abstract We present a mosaic of those co-added Full Frame Images acquired by the TESS satellite that had been released in 2020 April. The mosaic shows substantial stray light over the sky. Yet over spatial scales of a few degrees, the background appears uniform. This result indicates that TESS has considerable potential as a Low Surface Brightness Observatory. The co-added images are freely available as a High Level Science Product (HLSP) at MAST and accessible through a Jupyter Notebook. 
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    We utilize the galaxy shape catalogue from the first-year data release of the Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) survey to study the dark matter content of galaxy groups in the Universe using weak lensing. We use galaxy groups from the Galaxy Mass and Assembly galaxy survey in approximately 100 sq. degrees of the sky that overlap with the HSC survey as lenses. We restrict our analysis to the 1587 groups with at least five members. We divide these groups into six bins each of group luminosity and group member velocity dispersion and measure the lensing signal with a signal-to-noise ratio of 55 and 51 for these two different selections, respectively. We use a Bayesian halo model framework to infer the halo mass distribution of our groups binned in the two different observable properties and constrain the power-law scaling relation and the scatter between mean halo masses and the two-group observable properties. We obtain a 5 per cent constraint on the amplitude of the scaling relation between halo mass and group luminosity with 〈M〉 = (0.81 ± 0.04) × 1014 h−1 M⊙ for Lgrp = 1011.5 h−2 L⊙, and a power-law index of α = 1.01 ± 0.07. We constrain the amplitude of the scaling relation between halo mass and velocity dispersion to be 〈M〉 = (0.93 ± 0.05) × 1014 h−1 M⊙ for $\sigma = 500\, {\rm km\, s}^{-1}$ and a power-law index to be α = 1.52 ± 0.10. However, these scaling relations are sensitive to the exact cuts applied to the number of group members. Comparisons with similar scaling relations from the literature show that our results are consistent and have significantly reduced errors.

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  8. Abstract

    We report the discovery of an accreting supermassive black hole atz= 8.679. This galaxy, denoted here as CEERS_1019, was previously discovered as a Lyα-break galaxy by Hubble with a Lyαredshift from Keck. As part of the Cosmic Evolution Early Release Science (CEERS) survey, we have observed this source with JWST/NIRSpec, MIRI, NIRCam, and NIRCam/WFSS and uncovered a plethora of emission lines. The Hβline is best fit by a narrow plus a broad component, where the latter is measured at 2.5σwith an FWHM ∼1200 km s−1. We conclude this originates in the broadline region of an active galactic nucleus (AGN). This is supported by the presence of weak high-ionization lines (N V, N IV], and C III]), as well as a spatial point-source component. The implied mass of the black hole (BH) is log (MBH/M) = 6.95 ± 0.37, and we estimate that it is accreting at 1.2 ± 0.5 times the Eddington limit. The 1–8μm photometric spectral energy distribution shows a continuum dominated by starlight and constrains the host galaxy to be massive (log M/M∼9.5) and highly star-forming (star formation rate, or SFR ∼ 30 Myr−1; log sSFR ∼ − 7.9 yr−1). The line ratios show that the gas is metal-poor (Z/Z∼ 0.1), dense (ne∼ 103cm−3), and highly ionized (logU∼ − 2.1). We use this present highest-redshift AGN discovery to place constraints on BH seeding models and find that a combination of either super-Eddington accretion from stellar seeds or Eddington accretion from very massive BH seeds is required to form this object.

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  9. Abstract

    We present a search for extremely red, dust-obscured,z> 7 galaxies with JWST/NIRCam+MIRI imaging over the first 20 arcmin2of publicly available Cycle 1 data from the COSMOS-Web, CEERS, and PRIMER surveys. Based on their red color in F277W−F444W (∼2.5 mag) and detection in MIRI/F770W (∼25 mag), we identify two galaxies, COS-z8M1 and CEERS-z7M1, that have best-fit photometric redshifts ofz=8.40.4+0.3and7.60.1+0.1, respectively. We perform spectral energy distribution fitting with a variety of codes (includingbagpipes,prospector,beagle, andcigale) and find a >95% probability that these indeed lie atz> 7. Both sources are compact (Reff≲ 200 pc) and highly obscured (AV∼ 1.5–2.5) and, at our best-fit redshift estimates, likely have strong [Oiii]+Hβemission contributing to their 4.4μm photometry. We estimate stellar masses of ∼1010Mfor both sources; by virtue of detection in MIRI at 7.7μm, these measurements are robust to the inclusion of bright emission lines, for example, from an active galactic nucleus. We identify a marginal (2.9σ) Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array detection at 2 mm within 0.″5 of COS-z8M1, which, if real, would suggest a remarkably high IR luminosity of ∼1012L. These two galaxies, if confirmed atz∼ 8, would be extreme in their stellar and dust masses and may be representative of a substantial population of highly dust-obscured galaxies at cosmic dawn.

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