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  1. Studies assessing the predictability of evolution typically focus on short-term adaptation within populations or the repeatability of change among lineages. A missing consideration in speciation research is to determine whether natural selection predictably transforms standing genetic variation within populations into differences between species. Here, we test whether and how host-related selection on diapause timing associates with genome-wide differentiation during ecological speciation by comparing ancestral hawthorn and newly formed apple-infesting host races of Rhagoletis pomonella to their sibling species Rhagoletis mendax that attacks blueberries. The associations of 57 857 single nucleotide polymorphisms in a diapause genome-wide-association study (GWAS) on the hawthorn race strongly predicted the direction and magnitude of genomic divergence among the three fly populations at a field site in Fennville, MI, USA. The apple race and R. mendax show parallel changes in the frequencies of putative inversions on three chromosomes associated with the earlier fruiting times of apples and blueberries compared to hawthorns. A diapause GWAS on R. mendax revealed compensatory changes throughout the genome accounting for the earlier eclosion of blueberry, but not apple flies. Thus, a degree of predictability, although not complete, exists in the genomics of diapause across the ecological speciation continuum in Rhagoletis . The generality of this result is placed in the context of other similar systems. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Towards the completion of speciation: the evolution of reproductive isolation beyond the first barriers'. 
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  2. Abstract Insect pests destroy ~15% of all U.S. crops, resulting in losses of $15 billion annually. Thus, developing cheap, quick, and reliable methods for detecting harmful species is critical to curtail insect damage and lessen economic impact. The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, is a major invasive pest threatening the multibillion-dollar apple industry in the Pacific Northwest United States. The fly is also sympatric with a benign but morphologically similar and genetically closely related species, R. zephyria, which attacks noncommercial snowberry. Unambiguous species identification is essential due to a zero-infestation policy of apple maggot for fruit export. Mistaking R. zephyria for R. pomonella triggers unnecessary and costly quarantines, diverting valuable control resources. Here we develop and apply a relatively simple and cost-effective diagnostic approach using Illumina sequencing of double-digest restriction site-associated DNA markers. We identified five informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and designed a diagnostic test based on agarose gel electrophoresis of restriction enzyme-digested polymerase chain reaction amplification products (RFLPs) to distinguish fly species. We demonstrated the utility of this approach for immediate, 1-d species identification by scoring apple- and snowberry-infesting flies from known hosts, reared from fruit collected at 11 sites throughout Washington. However, if immediate diagnosis is not required, or hundreds to thousands of specimens must be assessed, then a direct Illumina-based sequencing strategy, similar to that used here for diagnostic SNP identification, can be powerful and cost-effective. The genomic strategy we present is effective for R. pomonella and also transferable to many cryptic pests. 
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  3. Abstract Parasitoid wasps are among the most speciose animals, yet have relatively few available genomic resources. We report a draft genome assembly of the wasp Diachasma alloeum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a host-specific parasitoid of the apple maggot fly Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae), and a developing model for understanding how ecological speciation can “cascade” across trophic levels. Identification of gene content confirmed the overall quality of the draft genome, and we manually annotated ∼400 genes as part of this study, including those involved in oxidative phosphorylation, chemosensation, and reproduction. Through comparisons to model hymenopterans such as the European honeybee Apis mellifera and parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis, as well as a more closely related braconid parasitoid Microplitis demolitor, we identified a proliferation of transposable elements in the genome, an expansion of chemosensory genes in parasitoid wasps, and the maintenance of several key genes with known roles in sexual reproduction and sex determination. The D. alloeum genome will provide a valuable resource for comparative genomics studies in Hymenoptera as well as specific investigations into the genomic changes associated with ecological speciation and transitions to asexuality. 
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  4. Abstract

    Divergent adaptation to new ecological opportunities can be an important factor initiating speciation. However, as niches are filled during adaptive radiations, trait divergence driving reproductive isolation between sister taxa may also result in trait convergence with more distantly related taxa, increasing the potential for reticulated gene flow across the radiation. Here, we demonstrate such a scenario in a recent adaptive radiation ofRhagoletisfruit flies, specialized on different host plants. Throughout this radiation, shifts to novel hosts are associated with changes in diapause life history timing, which act as “magic traits” generating allochronic reproductive isolation and facilitating speciation‐with‐gene‐flow. Evidence from laboratory rearing experiments measuring adult emergence timing and genome‐wide DNA‐sequencing surveys supported allochronic speciation between summer‐fruitingVacciniumspp.‐infestingRhagoletis mendaxand its hypothesized and undescribed sister taxon infesting autumn‐fruiting sparkleberries. The sparkleberry fly andRmendaxwere shown to be genetically discrete sister taxa, exhibiting no detectable gene flow and allochronically isolated by a 2‐month average difference in emergence time corresponding to host availability. At sympatric sites across the southern USA, the later fruiting phenology of sparkleberries overlaps with that of flowering dogwood, the host of another more distantly related and undescribedRhagoletistaxon. Laboratory emergence data confirmed broadly overlapping life history timing and genomic evidence supported on‐going gene flow between sparkleberry and flowering dogwood flies. Thus, divergent phenological adaptation can drive the initiation of reproductive isolation, while also enhancing genetic exchange across broader adaptive radiations, potentially serving as a source of novel genotypic variation and accentuating further diversification.

     
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