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Creators/Authors contains: "Horiuchi, Shunsaku"

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    We compile a catalogue of 578 highly probable and 62 likely red supergiants (RSGs) of the Milky Way, which represents the largest list of Galactic RSG candidates designed for continuous follow-up efforts to date. We match distances measured by Gaia DR3, 2MASS photometry, and a 3D Galactic dust map to obtain luminous bright late-type stars. Determining the stars’ bolometric luminosities and effective temperatures, we compare to Geneva stellar evolution tracks to determine likely RSG candidates, and quantify contamination using a catalogue of Galactic AGB in the same luminosity-temperature space. We add details for common or interesting characteristics of RSG, such as multistar system membership, variability, and classification as a runaway. As potential future core-collapse supernova progenitors, we study the ability of the catalogue to inform the Supernova Early Warning System (SNEWS) coincidence network made to automate pointing, and show that for 3D position estimates made possible by neutrinos, the number of progenitor candidates can be significantly reduced, improving our ability to observe the progenitor pre-explosion and the early phases of core-collapse supernovae.

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    We perform a comparative analysis of nucleosynthesis yields from binary neutron star (BNS) mergers, black hole-neutron star (BHNS) mergers, and core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) with the goal of determining which are the most dominant sources of r-process enrichment observed in stars. We find that BNS and BHNS binaries may eject similar mass distributions of robust r-process nuclei post-merger (up to third peak and actinides, A ∼ 200−240), after accounting for the volumetric event rates. Magnetorotational (MR) CCSNe likely undergo a weak r-process (up to A ∼ 140) and contribute to the production of light element primary process (LEPP) nuclei, whereas typical thermal, neutrino-driven CCSNe only synthesize up to first r-process peak nuclei (A ∼ 80−90). We also find that the upper limit to the rate of MR CCSNe is $\lesssim 1~{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ the rate of typical thermal CCSNe; if the rate was higher, then weak r-process nuclei would be overproduced. Although the largest uncertainty is from the volumetric event rate, the prospects are encouraging for confirming these rates in the next few years with upcoming surveys. Using a simple model to estimate the resulting kilonova light curve from mergers and our set of fiducial merger parameters, we predict that ∼7 BNS and ∼2 BHNS events will be detectable per year by the Vera C. Rubin Observatory (LSST), with prior gravitational wave (GW) triggers.

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  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024

    Relativistic jets originating from protomagnetar central engines can lead to long duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and are considered potential sources of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays and secondary neutrinos. We explore the propagation of such jets through a broad range of progenitors, from stars which have shed their envelopes to supergiants which have not. We use a semi-analytical spin-down model for the strongly magnetized and rapidly rotating protoneutron star (PNS) to investigate the role of central engine properties such as the surface dipole field strength, initial rotation period, and jet opening angle on the interactions and dynamical evolution of the jet-cocoon system. With this model, we determine the properties of the relativistic jet, the mildly relativistic cocoon, and the collimation shock in terms of system parameters such as the time-dependent jet luminosity, injection angle, and density profile of the stellar medium. We also analyse the criteria for a successful jet breakout, the maximum energy that can be deposited into the cocoon by the relativistic jet, and structural stability of the magnetized outflow relative to local instabilities. Lastly, we compute the high-energy neutrino emission as these magnetized outflows burrow through their progenitors. Precursor neutrinos from successful GRB jets are unlikely to be detected by IceCube, which is consistent with the results of previous works. On the other hand, we find that high-energy neutrinos may be produced for extended progenitors like blue and red supergiants, and we estimate the detectability of neutrinos with next generation detectors such as IceCube-Gen2.

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  5. Abstract

    It was recently proposed that exotic particles can trigger a new stellar instability that is analogous to theee+pair instability if they are produced and reach equilibrium in the stellar plasma. In this study, we construct axion instability supernova (AISN) models caused by the new instability to predict their observational signatures. We focus on heavy axion-like particles (ALPs) with masses of ∼400 keV–2 MeV and coupling with photons ofgaγ∼ 10−5GeV−1. It is found that the56Ni mass and the explosion energy are significantly increased by ALPs for a fixed stellar mass. As a result, the peak times of the light curves of AISNe occur earlier than those of standard pair-instability supernovae by 10–20 days when the ALP mass is equal to the electron mass. Also, the event rate of AISNe is 1.7–2.6 times higher than that of pair-instability supernovae, depending on the high mass cutoff of the initial mass function.

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    It has been suggested that strongly magnetized and rapidly rotating protoneutron stars (PNSs) may produce long duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) originating from stellar core collapse. We explore the steady-state properties and heavy element nucleosynthesis in neutrino-driven winds from such PNSs whose magnetic axis is generally misaligned with the axis of rotation. We consider a wide variety of central engine properties such as surface dipole field strength, initial rotation period, and magnetic obliquity to show that heavy element nuclei can be synthesized in the radially expanding wind. This process is facilitated provided the outflow is Poynting-flux dominated such that its low entropy and fast expansion time-scale enables heavy nuclei to form in a more efficient manner as compared to the equivalent thermal GRB outflows. We also examine the acceleration and survival of these heavy nuclei and show that they can reach sufficiently high energies ≳ 1020 eV within the same physical regions that are also responsible for powering gamma-ray emission, primarily through magnetic dissipation processes. Although these magnetized outflows generally fail to achieve the production of elements heavier than lanthanides for our explored electron fraction range 0.4–0.6, we show that they are more than capable of synthesizing nuclei near and beyond iron peak elements.

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