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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 14, 2023
  2. Mobile devices typically rely on entry-point and other one-time authentication mechanisms such as a password, PIN, fingerprint, iris, or face. But these authentication types are prone to a wide attack vector and worse 1 INTRODUCTION Currently smartphones are predominantly protected a patterned password is prone to smudge attacks, and fingerprint scanning is prone to spoof attacks. Other forms of attacks include video capture and shoulder surfing. Given the increasingly important roles smartphones play in e-commerce and other operations where security is crucial, there lies a strong need of continuous authentication mechanisms to complement and enhance one-time authentication such that even if the authentication at the point of login gets compromised, the device is still unobtrusively protected by additional security measures in a continuous fashion. The research community has investigated several continuous authentication mechanisms based on unique human behavioral traits, including typing, swiping, and gait. To this end, we focus on investigating physiological traits. While interacting with hand-held devices, individuals strive to achieve stability and precision. This is because a certain degree of stability is required in order to manipulate and interact successfully with smartphones, while precision is needed for tasks such as touching or tapping a small target on themore »touch screen (Sitov´a et al., 2015). As a result, to achieve stability and precision, individuals tend to develop their own postural preferences, such as holding a phone with one or both hands, supporting hands on the sides of upper torso and interacting, keeping the phone on the table and typing with the preferred finger, setting the phone on knees while sitting crosslegged and typing, supporting both elbows on chair handles and typing. On the other hand, physiological traits, such as hand-size, grip strength, muscles, age, 424 Ray, A., Hou, D., Schuckers, S. and Barbir, A. Continuous Authentication based on Hand Micro-movement during Smartphone Form Filling by Seated Human Subjects. DOI: 10.5220/0010225804240431 In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Information Systems Security and Privacy (ICISSP 2021), pages 424-431 ISBN: 978-989-758-491-6 Copyrightc 2021 by SCITEPRESS – Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved still, once compromised, fail to protect the user’s account and data. In contrast, continuous authentication, based on traits of human behavior, can offer additional security measures in the device to authenticate against unauthorized users, even after the entry-point and one-time authentication has been compromised. To this end, we have collected a new data-set of multiple behavioral biometric modalities (49 users) when a user fills out an account recovery form in sitting using an Android app. These include motion events (acceleration and angular velocity), touch and swipe events, keystrokes, and pattern tracing. In this paper, we focus on authentication based on motion events by evaluating a set of score level fusion techniques to authenticate users based on the acceleration and angular velocity data. The best EERs of 2.4% and 6.9% for intra- and inter-session respectively, are achieved by fusing acceleration and angular velocity using Nandakumar et al.’s likelihood ratio (LR) based score fusion.« less
  3. Account recovery is ubiquitous across web applications but circumvents the username/password-based login step. Therefore, it deserves the same level of security as the user authentication process. A common simplistic procedure for account recovery requires that a user enters the same email used during registration, to which a password recovery link or a new username could be sent. Therefore, an impostor with access to a user’s registration email and other credentials can trigger an account recovery session to take over the user’s account. To prevent such attacks, beyond validating the email and other credentials entered by the user, our proposed recovery method utilizes keystroke dynamics to further secure the account recovery mechanism. Keystroke dynamics is a type of behavioral biometrics that uses the analysis of typing rhythm for user authentication. Using a new dataset with over 500,000 keystrokes collected from 44 students and university staff when they fill out an account recovery web form of multiple fields, we have evaluated the performance of five scoring algorithms on individual fields as well as feature-level fusion and weighted-score fusion. We achieve the best EER of 5.47% when keystroke dynamics from individual fields are used, 0% for a feature-level fusion of five fields, andmore »0% for a weighted-score fusion of seven fields. Our work represents a new kind of keystroke dynamics that we would like to call it ‘medium fixed-text’ as it sits between the conventional (short) fixed text and (long) free text research.« less
  4. Facebook has become an important part of our daily life. From knowing the status of our relatives, showing off a new car, to connecting with a high school classmate, abundant personally identifiable information (PII) are made visible to others by posts, images and news. However, this free flow of information has also created significant cyber-security challenges that make us vulnerable to social engineering and cyber crimes. To confront these challenges, we propose a new behavioral biometric that verifies a user based on his or her widget interaction behavior when using Facebook. Specifically, we monitor activities on the user’s Facebook account using our own logging software and verify the user’s claimed identity by binary classifiers trained with two algorithms (SVM-rbf and the GBM– Gradient Boosting Machines). Our novel dataset consists of eight users over a month of data collection with an average of 2.95k rows of data per user. We convert these activities data into meaningful features such as day-of-week, hour-of-day, and widget types and duration of mouse staying on a widget. The performance shows that our novel widget interaction modality is promising for authentication. The SVM-rbf classifiers achieve a mean Equal Error Rate (EER) and mean Accuracy (ACC) of 3.91%more »and 97.79%, while the GBM classifiers a mean EER and ACC of 2.76% and 97.88%, respectively. In addition, we perform an ablation study to understand the impact of individual features on authentication performance. The importance of features are ranked in the descending order of hour-of-day, day-of-week, and widget types and duration.« less
  5. Keystroke dynamics study the way in which users input text via their keyboards, which is unique to each individual, and can form a component of a behavioral biometric system to improve existing account security. Keystroke dynamics systems on free-text data use n-graphs that measure the timing between consecutive keystrokes to distinguish between users. Many algorithms require 500, 1,000, or more keystrokes to achieve EERs of below 10%. In this paper, we propose an instance-based graph comparison algorithm to reduce the number of keystrokes required to authenticate users. Commonly used features such as monographs and digraphs are investigated. Feature importance is determined and used to construct a fused classifier. Detection error tradeoff (DET) curves are produced with different numbers of keystrokes. The fused classifier outperforms the state-of-the-art with EERs of 7.9%, 5.7%, 3.4%, and 2.7% for test samples of 50, 100, 200, and 500 keystrokes.
  6. Research on keystroke dynamics has the good potential to offer continuous authentication that complements conventional authentication methods in combating insider threats and identity theft before more harm can be done to the genuine users. Unfortunately, the large amount of data required by free-text keystroke authentication often contain personally identifiable information, or PII, and personally sensitive information, such as a user's first name and last name, username and password for an account, bank card numbers, and social security numbers. As a result, there are privacy risks associated with keystroke data that must be mitigated before they are shared with other researchers. We conduct a systematic study to remove PII's from a recent large keystroke dataset. We find substantial amounts of PII's from the dataset, including names, usernames and passwords, social security numbers, and bank card numbers, which, if leaked, may lead to various harms to the user, including personal embarrassment, blackmails, financial loss, and identity theft. We thoroughly evaluate the effectiveness of our detection program for each kind of PII. We demonstrate that our PII detection program can achieve near perfect recall at the expense of losing some useful information (lower precision). Finally, we demonstrate that the removal of PII's frommore »the original dataset has only negligible impact on the detection error tradeoff of the free-text authentication algorithm by Gunetti and Picardi. We hope that this experience report will be useful in informing the design of privacy removal in future keystroke dynamics based user authentication systems.« less
  7. Keystroke dynamics are a powerful behavioral biometric capable of determining user identity and for continuous authentication. It is an unobtrusive method that can complement an existing security system such as a password scheme and provides continuous user authentication. Existing methods record all keystrokes and use n-graphs that measure the timing between consecutive keystrokes to distinguish between users. Current state-of-the-art algorithms report EER’s of 7.5% or higher with 1000 characters. With 1000 characters it takes a longer time to detect an imposter and significant damage could be done. In this paper, we investigate how quickly a user is authenticated or how many digraphs are required to accurately detect an imposter in an uncontrolled free-text environment. We present and evaluate the effectiveness of three distance metrics individually and fused with each other. We show that with just 100 digraphs, about the length of a single sentence, we achieve an EER of 35.3%. At 200 digraphs the EER drops to 15.3%. With more digraphs, the performance continues to steadily improve. With 1000 digraphs the EER drops to 3.6% which is an improvement over the state-of-the-art.