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    We present here uGMRT band 4 (∼650 MHz) polarization images of 8 BL Lac objects belonging to the Palomar-Green (PG) ‘blazar’ sample. A large fraction of the sources ($\sim 63~{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$) reveal core-halo radio structures with most of the polarization detected in the inner core-jet regions. PG1101 + 385 and PG2254 + 075 exhibit a ‘spine-sheath structure’ in polarization. The core-halo and ‘spine-sheath’ structures are consistent with the Unified Scheme suggestion that BL Lacs are the pole-on beamed counterparts of Fanaroff–Riley (FR) type I radio galaxies. PG1418 + 546 and PG0851 + 203 (OJ287) show the presence of terminal hotspots similar to FR type II radio galaxies. They were also found to be low-spectrally peaked BL Lacs, supportive of the ‘blazar envelope’ scenario for BL Lacs and quasars. Fractional polarization ranges from 1 to 13 per cent in the cores and 2 to 26 per cent in the inner jets/lobes of the sample BL Lacs. Compared to the varied radio morphology of quasars from the PG ‘blazar’ sample, the BL Lacs appear to be less diverse. A comparison of the inferred core magnetic (B-) field structures on arcsec- (kpc-) scales w.r.t. the Very Long Baseline Interferometry jet direction does not reveal any preferred orientation, suggesting that if large-scale ordered B-fields exist, they do so on scales smaller than probed by the current observations. However, the presence of polarized emission on arcsec-scales suggests that any mixing of thermal plasma with the synchrotron emitting plasma is insufficient to fully depolarize the emission via the internal depolarization process.

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  2. Context. Optical polarimeters are typically calibrated using measurements of stars with known and stable polarization parameters. However, there is a lack of such stars available across the sky. Many of the currently available standards are not suitable for medium and large telescopes due to their high brightness. Moreover, as we find, some of the polarimetric standards used are in fact variable or have polarization parameters that differ from their cataloged values. Aims. Our goal is to establish a sample of stable standards suitable for calibrating linear optical polarimeters with an accuracy down to 10 −3 in fractional polarization. Methods. For 4 yr, we have been running a monitoring campaign of a sample of standard candidates comprised of 107 stars distributed across the northern sky. We analyzed the variability of the linear polarization of these stars, taking into account the non-Gaussian nature of fractional polarization measurements. For a subsample of nine stars, we also performed multiband polarization measurements. Results. We created a new catalog of 65 stars (see Table 2) that are stable, have small uncertainties of measured polarimetric parameters, and can be used as calibrators of polarimeters at medium and large telescopes. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
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    We report multiwavelength observations of the gravitationally lensed blazar QSO B0218+357 in 2016–2020. Optical, X-ray, and GeV flares were detected. The contemporaneous MAGIC observations do not show significant very high energy (VHE; ≳100 GeV) gamma-ray emission. The lack of enhancement in radio emission measured by The Owens Valley Radio Observatory indicates the multizone nature of the emission from this object. We constrain the VHE duty cycle of the source to be <16 2014-like flares per year (95 per cent confidence). For the first time for this source, a broad-band low-state spectral energy distribution is constructed with a deep exposure up to the VHE range. A flux upper limit on the low-state VHE gamma-ray emission of an order of magnitude below that of the 2014 flare is determined. The X-ray data are used to fit the column density of (8.10 ± 0.93stat) × 1021 cm−2 of the dust in the lensing galaxy. VLBI observations show a clear radio core and jet components in both lensed images, yet no significant movement of the components is seen. The radio measurements are used to model the source-lens-observer geometry and determine the magnifications and time delays for both components. The quiescent emission is modelled with the high-energy bump explained as a combination of synchrotron-self-Compton and external Compton emission from a region located outside of the broad-line region. The bulk of the low-energy emission is explained as originating from a tens-of-parsecs scale jet.

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