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  1. Abstract

    Amazonia has the richest primate fauna in the world. Nonetheless, the diversity and distribution of Amazonian primates remain little known and the scarcity of baseline data challenges their conservation. These challenges are especially acute in the Amazonian arc of deforestation, the 2500 km long southern edge of the Amazonian biome that is rapidly being deforested and converted to agricultural and pastoral landscapes. Amazonian marmosets of the genusMicoare little known endemics of this region and therefore a priority for research and conservation efforts. However, even nascent conservation efforts are hampered by taxonomic uncertainties in this group, such as the existence of a potentially new species from the Juruena–Teles Pires interfluve hidden within theM. emiliaeepithet. Here we test if these marmosets belong to a distinct species using new morphological, phylogenomic, and geographic distribution data analysed within an integrative taxonomic framework. We discovered a new, pseudo-crypticMicospecies hidden within the epithetM. emiliae, here described and named after Horacio Schneider, the pioneer of molecular phylogenetics of Neotropical primates. We also clarify the distribution, evolutionary and morphological relationships of four otherMicospecies, bridging Linnean, Wallacean, and Darwinian shortfalls in the conservation of primates in the Amazonian arc of deforestation.

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  2. The rich diversity of morphology and behavior displayed across primate species provides an informative context in which to study the impact of genomic diversity on fundamental biological processes. Analysis of that diversity provides insight into long-standing questions in evolutionary and conservation biology and is urgent given severe threats these species are facing. Here, we present high-coverage whole-genome data from 233 primate species representing 86% of genera and all 16 families. This dataset was used, together with fossil calibration, to create a nuclear DNA phylogeny and to reassess evolutionary divergence times among primate clades. We found within-species genetic diversity across families and geographic regions to be associated with climate and sociality, but not with extinction risk. Furthermore, mutation rates differ across species, potentially influenced by effective population sizes. Lastly, we identified extensive recurrence of missense mutations previously thought to be human specific. This study will open a wide range of research avenues for future primate genomic research. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 2, 2024
  3. Abstract

    Several factors have been proposed as drivers of species diversification in the Neotropics, including environmental heterogeneity, the development of drainage systems and historical changes in forest distribution due to climatic oscillations. Here, we investigate which drivers contributed to the evolutionary history and current patterns of diversity of a polymorphic songbird (Arremon taciturnus) that is widely distributed in Amazonian and Atlantic forests as well as in Cerrado gallery and seasonally‐dry forests. We use genomic, phenotypic and habitat heterogeneity data coupled with climatic niche modelling. Results suggest the evolutionary history of the species is mainly related to paleoclimatic changes, although changes in the strength of the Amazon river as a barrier to dispersal, current habitat heterogeneity and geographic distance were also relevant. We propose an ancestral distribution in the Guyana Shield, and recent colonization of areas south of the Amazon river at ~380 to 166 kya, and expansion of the distribution to southern Amazonia, Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest. Since then, populations south of the Amazon River have been subjected to cycles of isolation and possibly secondary contact due to climatic changes that affected habitat heterogeneity and population connectivity. Most Amazonian rivers are not associated with long lasting isolation of populations, but some might act as secondary barriers, susceptible to crossing under specific climatic conditions. Morphological variation, while stable in some parts of the distribution, is not a reliable indicator of genetic structure or phylogenetic relationships.

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