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Free, publiclyaccessible full text available February 9, 2025

Abstract We provide the first combined cosmological analysis of the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Planck cluster catalogs. The aim is to provide an independent calibration for Planck scaling relations, exploiting the cosmological constraining power of the SPTSZ cluster catalog and its dedicated weak lensing (WL) and Xray followup observations. We build a new version of the Planck cluster likelihood. In the ν Λ CDM scenario, focusing on the mass slope and mass bias of Planck scaling relations, we find α SZ = 1.49 − 0.10 + 0.07 and 1 − b SZ = 0.69 − 0.14 + 0.07 , respectively. The results for the mass slope show a ∼4 σ departure from the selfsimilar evolution, α SZ ∼ 1.8. This shift is mainly driven by the matter density value preferred by SPT data, Ω m = 0.30 ± 0.03, lower than the one obtained by Planck data alone, Ω m = 0.37 − 0.06 + 0.02 . The mass bias constraints are consistent both with outcomes of hydrodynamical simulations and external WL calibrations, (1 − b ) ∼ 0.8, and with results required by the Planck cosmic microwave background cosmology, (1 − b ) ∼ 0.6. From this analysis, we obtain a new catalog of Planck cluster masses M 500 . We estimate the ratio between the published Planck M SZ masses and our derived masses M 500 , as a “measured mass bias,” 1 − b M . We analyze the mass, redshift, and detection noise dependence of 1 − b M , finding an increasing trend toward high redshift and low mass. These results mimic the effect of departure from selfsimilarity in cluster evolution, showing different dependencies for the lowmass, highmass, low z , and high z regimes.more » « less

Abstract We show the improvement to cosmological constraints from galaxy cluster surveys with the addition of cosmic microwave background (CMB)cluster lensing data. We explore the cosmological implications of adding mass information from the 3.1
σ detection of gravitational lensing of the CMB by galaxy clusters to the Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (SZ) selected galaxy cluster sample from the 2500 deg^{2}SPTSZ survey and targeted optical and Xray followup data. In the ΛCDM model, the combination of the cluster sample with the Planck power spectrum measurements prefers . Adding the cluster data reduces the uncertainty on this quantity by a factor of 1.4, which is unchanged whether the 3.1 ${\sigma}_{8}{\left({\mathrm{\Omega}}_{m}/0.3\right)}^{0.5}=0.831\pm 0.020$σ CMBcluster lensing measurement is included or not. We then forecast the impact of CMBcluster lensing measurements with future cluster catalogs. Adding CMBcluster lensing measurements to the SZ cluster catalog of the ongoing SPT3G survey is expected to improve the expected constraint on the dark energy equation of statew by a factor of 1.3 toσ (w ) = 0.19. We find the largest improvements from CMBcluster lensing measurements to be forσ _{8}, where adding CMBcluster lensing data to the cluster number counts reduces the expected uncertainty onσ _{8}by respective factors of 2.4 and 3.6 for SPT3G and CMBS4. 
Abstract Including millimeterwave data in multiwavelength studies of the variability of active galactic nuclei (AGN) can provide insights into AGN physics that are not easily accessible at other wavelengths. We demonstrate in this work the potential of cosmic microwave background (CMB) telescopes to provide longterm, highcadence millimeterwave AGN monitoring over large fractions of sky. We report on a pilot study using data from the SPTpol instrument on the South Pole Telescope (SPT), which was designed to observe the CMB at arcminute and larger angular scales. Between 2013 and 2016, SPTpol was used primarily to observe a single 500 deg^{2}field, covering the entire field several times per day with detectors sensitive to radiation in bands centered at 95 and 150 GHz. We use SPT 150 GHz observations to create AGN light curves, and we compare these millimeterwave light curves to those at other wavelengths, in particular
γ ray and optical. In this Letter, we focus on a single source, PKS 2326502, which has extensive, daytimescale monitoring data in gammaray, optical, and now millimeterwave between 2013 and 2016. We find PKS 2326502 to be in a flaring state in the first 2 yr of this monitoring, and we present a search for evidence of correlated variability between millimeterwave, opticalR band, andγ ray observations. This pilot study is paving the way for AGN monitoring with current and upcoming CMB experiments such as SPT3G, Simons Observatory, and CMBS4, including multiwavelength studies with facilities such as Vera C. Rubin Observatories Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. 
ABSTRACT We search for the signature of cosmological shocks in stacked gas pressure profiles of galaxy clusters using data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT). Specifically, we stack the latest Comptony maps from the 2500 deg2 SPTSZ survey on the locations of clusters identified in that same data set. The sample contains 516 clusters with mean mass $\langle M_{\rm 200m}\rangle = 10^{14.9} \, {\rm M}_\odot$ and redshift 〈z〉 = 0.55. We analyse in parallel a set of zoomin hydrodynamical simulations from the three hundred project. The SPTSZ data show two features: (i) a pressure deficit at R/R200m = 1.08 ± 0.09, measured at 3.1σ significance and not observed in the simulations, and; (ii) a sharp decrease in pressure at R/R200m = 4.58 ± 1.24 at 2.0σ significance. The pressure deficit is qualitatively consistent with a shockinduced thermal nonequilibrium between electrons and ions, and the second feature is consistent with accretion shocks seen in previous studies. We split the cluster sample by redshift and mass, and find both features exist in all cases. There are also no significant differences in features along and across the cluster major axis, whose orientation roughly points towards filamentary structure. As a consistency test, we also analyse clusters from the Planck and Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter surveys and find quantitatively similar features in the pressure profiles. Finally, we compare the accretion shock radius ($R_{\rm sh,\, acc}$) with existing measurements of the splashback radius (Rsp) for SPTSZ and constrain the lower limit of the ratio, $R_{\rm sh,\, acc}/R_{\rm sp}\gt 2.16 \pm 0.59$.

Abstract We present componentseparated maps of the primary cosmic microwave background/kinematic Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (SZ) amplitude and the thermal SZ Compton
y parameter, created using data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and the Planck satellite. These maps, which cover the ∼2500 deg^{2}of the southern sky imaged by the SPTSZ survey, represent a significant improvement over previous such products available in this region by virtue of their higher angular resolution ( for our highestresolution Compton $1.\prime 25$y maps) and lower noise at small angular scales. In this work we detail the construction of these maps using linear combination techniques, including our method for limiting the correlation of our lowestnoise Comptony map products with the cosmic infrared background. We perform a range of validation tests on these data products to test our sky modeling and combination algorithms, and we find good performance in all of these tests. Recognizing the potential utility of these data products for a wide range of astrophysical and cosmological analyses, including studies of the gas properties of galaxies, groups, and clusters, we make these products publicly available athttp://pole.uchicago.edu/public/data/sptsz_ymap and on the NASA/LAMBDA website. 
Optimal Cosmic Microwave Background Lensing Reconstruction and Parameter Estimation with SPTpol DataAbstract We perform the first simultaneous Bayesian parameter inference and optimal reconstruction of the gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), using 100 deg 2 of polarization observations from the SPTpol receiver on the South Pole Telescope. These data reach noise levels as low as 5.8 μ K arcmin in polarization, which are low enough that the typically used quadratic estimator (QE) technique for analyzing CMB lensing is significantly suboptimal. Conversely, the Bayesian procedure extracts all lensing information from the data and is optimal at any noise level. We infer the amplitude of the gravitational lensing potential to be A ϕ = 0.949 ± 0.122 using the Bayesian pipeline, consistent with our QE pipeline result, but with 17% smaller error bars. The Bayesian analysis also provides a simple way to account for systematic uncertainties, performing a similar job as frequentist “bias hardening” or linear bias correction, and reducing the systematic uncertainty on A ϕ due to polarization calibration from almost half of the statistical error to effectively zero. Finally, we jointly constrain A ϕ along with A L , the amplitude of lensinglike effects on the CMB power spectra, demonstrating that the Bayesian method can be used to easily infer parameters both from an optimal lensing reconstruction and from the delensed CMB, while exactly accounting for the correlation between the two. These results demonstrate the feasibility of the Bayesian approach on real data, and pave the way for future analysis of deep CMB polarization measurements with SPT3G, Simons Observatory, and CMBS4, where improvements relative to the QE can reach 1.5 times tighter constraints on A ϕ and seven times lower effective lensing reconstruction noise.more » « less

ABSTRACT We crosscorrelate positions of galaxies measured in data from the first three years of the Dark Energy Survey with Comptony maps generated using data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and the Planck mission. We model this crosscorrelation measurement together with the galaxy autocorrelation to constrain the distribution of gas in the Universe. We measure the hydrostatic mass bias or, equivalently, the mean halo biasweighted electron pressure 〈bhPe 〉, using largescale information. We find 〈bhPe 〉 to be $[0.16^{+0.03}_{0.04},0.28^{+0.04}_{0.05},0.45^{+0.06}_{0.10},0.54^{+0.08}_{0.07},0.61^{+0.08}_{0.06},0.63^{+0.07}_{0.08}]$ meV cm−3 at redshifts z ∼ [0.30, 0.46, 0.62, 0.77, 0.89, 0.97]. These values are consistent with previous work where measurements exist in the redshift range. We also constrain the mean gas profile using smallscale information, enabled by the highresolution of the SPT data. We compare our measurements to different parametrized profiles based on the cosmoOWLS hydrodynamical simulations. We find that our data are consistent with the simulation that assumes an AGN heating temperature of 108.5 K but are incompatible with the model that assumes an AGN heating temperature of 108.0 K. These comparisons indicate that the data prefer a higher value of electron pressure than the simulations within r500c of the galaxies’ haloes.