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  1. Abstract

    We present high-cadence ultraviolet through near-infrared observations of the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2023bee atD= 32 ± 3 Mpc, finding excess flux in the first days after explosion, particularly in our 10 minutes cadence TESS light curve and Swift UV data. Compared to a few other normal SNe Ia with early excess flux, the excess flux in SN 2023bee is redder in the UV and less luminous. We present optical spectra of SN 2023bee, including two spectra during the period where the flux excess is dominant. At this time, the spectra are similar to those of other SNe Ia but with weaker Siii, Cii,and Caiiabsorption lines, perhaps because the excess flux creates a stronger continuum. We compare the data to several theoretical models on the origin of early excess flux in SNe Ia. Interaction with either the companion star or close-in circumstellar material is expected to produce a faster evolution than observed. Radioactive material in the outer layers of the ejecta, either from double detonation explosion or from a56Ni clump near the surface, cannot fully reproduce the evolution either, likely due to the sensitivity of early UV observable to the treatment of the outer part of ejecta in simulation. We conclude that no current model can adequately explain the full set of observations. We find that a relatively large fraction of nearby, bright SNe Ia with high-cadence observations have some amount of excess flux within a few days of explosion. Considering potential asymmetric emission, the physical cause of this excess flux may be ubiquitous in normal SNe Ia.

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  2. ABSTRACT A rare class of supernovae (SNe) is characterized by strong interaction between the ejecta and several solar masses of circumstellar matter (CSM) as evidenced by strong Balmer-line emission. Within the first few weeks after the explosion, they may display spectral features similar to overluminous Type Ia SNe, while at later phase their observation properties exhibit remarkable similarities with some extreme case of Type IIn SNe that show strong Balmer lines years after the explosion. We present polarimetric observations of SN 2018evt obtained by the ESO Very Large Telescope from 172 to 219 d after the estimated time of peak luminosity to study the geometry of the CSM. The non-zero continuum polarization decreases over time, suggesting that the mass-loss of the progenitor star is aspherical. The prominent H α emission can be decomposed into a broad, time-evolving component and an intermediate-width, static component. The former shows polarized signals, and it is likely to arise from a cold dense shell (CDS) within the region between the forward and reverse shocks. The latter is significantly unpolarized, and it is likely to arise from shocked, fragmented gas clouds in the H-rich CSM. We infer that SN 2018evt exploded inside a massive and aspherical circumstellar cloud. The symmetry axes of the CSM and the SN appear to be similar. SN 2018evt shows observational properties common to events that display strong interaction between the ejecta and CSM, implying that they share similar circumstellar configurations. Our preliminary estimate also suggests that the circumstellar environment of SN 2018evt has been significantly enriched at a rate of ∼0.1 M⊙ yr−1 over a period of >100 yr. 
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  3. Abstract

    We present multiwavelength time-series spectroscopy of SN 2013aa and SN 2017cbv, two Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) on the outskirts of the same host galaxy, NGC 5643. This work utilizes new nebular-phase near-infrared (NIR) spectra obtained by the Carnegie Supernova Project-II, in addition to previously published optical and NIR spectra. Using nebular-phase [Feii] lines in the optical and NIR, we examine the explosion kinematics and test the efficacy of several common emission-line-fitting techniques. The NIR [Feii] 1.644μm line provides the most robust velocity measurements against variations due to the choice of the fit method and line blending. The resulting effects on velocity measurements due to choosing different fit methods, initial fit parameters, continuum and line profile functions, and fit region boundaries were also investigated. The NIR [Feii] velocities yield the same radial shift direction as velocities measured using the optical [Feii]λ7155 line, but the sizes of the shifts are consistently and substantially lower, pointing to a potential issue in optical studies. The NIR [Feii] 1.644μm emission profile shows a lack of significant asymmetry in both SNe, and the observed low velocities elevate the importance for correcting for any velocity contribution from the host galaxy’s rotation. The low [Feii] velocities measured in the NIR at nebular phases disfavor progenitor scenarios in close double-degenerate systems for both SN 2013aa and SN 2017cbv. The time evolution of the NIR [Feii] 1.644μm line also indicates moderately high progenitor white dwarf central density and potentially high magnetic fields.

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  7. Abstract We present high-cadence optical, ultraviolet (UV), and near-infrared data of the nearby ( D ≈ 23 Mpc) Type II supernova (SN) 2021yja. Many Type II SNe show signs of interaction with circumstellar material (CSM) during the first few days after explosion, implying that their red supergiant (RSG) progenitors experience episodic or eruptive mass loss. However, because it is difficult to discover SNe early, the diversity of CSM configurations in RSGs has not been fully mapped. SN 2021yja, first detected within ≈ 5.4 hours of explosion, shows some signatures of CSM interaction (high UV luminosity and radio and x-ray emission) but without the narrow emission lines or early light-curve peak that can accompany CSM. Here we analyze the densely sampled early light curve and spectral series of this nearby SN to infer the properties of its progenitor and CSM. We find that the most likely progenitor was an RSG with an extended envelope, encompassed by low-density CSM. We also present archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the host galaxy of SN 2021yja, which allows us to place a stringent upper limit of ≲ 9 M ☉ on the progenitor mass. However, this is in tension with some aspects of the SN evolution, which point to a more massive progenitor. Our analysis highlights the need to consider progenitor structure when making inferences about CSM properties, and that a comprehensive view of CSM tracers should be made to give a fuller view of the last years of RSG evolution. 
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  9. The type Ia supernova (SN) 2012fr displayed an unusual combination of its Si II λλ5972, 6355 features. This includes the ratio of their pseudo-equivalent widths, placing it at the border of the shallow silicon (SS) and core normal (CN) spectral subtype in the Branch diagram, while the Si II λ6355 expansion velocities place it as a high-velocity (HV) object in the Wang et al. spectral type that most interestingly evolves slowly, placing it in the low-velocity gradient (LVG) typing of Benetti et al. Only 5% of SNe Ia are HV and located in the SS+CN portion of the Branch diagram, and fewer than 10% of SNe Ia are both HV and LVG. These features point toward SN 2012fr being quite unusual, similar in many ways to the peculiar SN 2000cx. We modeled the spectral evolution of SN 2012fr to see if we could gain some insight into its evolutionary behavior. We use the parameterized radiative transfer code SYNOW to probe the abundance stratification of SN 2012fr at pre-maximum, maximum, and post-maximum light epochs. We also use a grid of W7 models in the radiative transfer code PHOENIX to probe the effect of different density structures on the formation of the Si II λ6355 absorption feature at post-maximum epochs. We find that the unusual features observed in SN 2012fr are likely due to a shell-like density enhancement in the outer ejecta. We comment on possible reasons for atypical Ca II absorption features, and suggest that they are related to the Si II features. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Baade Telescope, located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. 
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