skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Hu, Leiqiu"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Abstract

    Urban areas are known to modify the spatial pattern of precipitation climatology. Existing observational evidence suggests that precipitation can be enhanced downwind of a city. Among the proposed mechanisms, the thermodynamic and aerodynamic processes in the urban lower atmosphere interact with the meteorological conditions and can play a key role in determining the resulting precipitation patterns. In addition, these processes are influenced by urban form, such as the impervious surface extent. This study aims to unravel how different urban forms impact the spatial patterns of precipitation climatology under different meteorological conditions. We use the Multi‐Radar Multi‐Sensor quantitative precipitation estimation data products and analyze the hourly precipitation maps for 27 selected cities across the continental United States from the years 2015–2021 summer months. Results show that about 80% of the studied cities exhibit a statistically significant downwind enhancement of precipitation. Additionally, we find that the precipitation pattern tends to be more spatially clustered in intensity under higher wind speed; the location of radial precipitation maxima is located closer to the city center under low background winds but shifts downwind under high wind conditions. The magnitude of downwind precipitation enhancement is highly dependent on wind directions and is positively correlated with the city size for the south, southwest, and west directions. This study presents observational evidence through a cross‐city analysis that the urban precipitation pattern can be influenced by the urban modification of atmospheric processes, providing insight into the mechanistic link between future urban land‐use change and hydroclimates.

    more » « less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2025
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  3. Abstract

    Coastal marine heatwaves (MHWs) modulate coastal climate through ocean‐land‐atmosphere interactions, but little is known about how coastal MHWs interact with coastal cities and modify urban thermal environment. In this study, a representative urban coastal environment under MHWs is simplified to a mixed convection problem. Fourteen large‐eddy simulations (LESs) are conducted to investigate how coastal cities interact with MHWs. We consider the simulations by simple urban roughness setup (Set A) as well as explicit urban roughness representation (Set B). Besides, different MHW intensities, synoptic wind speeds, surface fluxes of urban and sea patches are considered. Results suggest that increasing MHW intensity alters streamwise potential temperature gradient and vertical velocity direction. The magnitude of vertical velocity and urban heat island (UHI) intensity decrease with increasing synoptic wind speed. Changing urban or sea surface heat flux also leads to important differences in flow and temperature fields. Comparison between Set A and B reveals a significant increase of vertical velocity magnitude and UHI intensity. To further understand this phenomenon, a canopy layer UHI model is proposed to show the relationship between UHI intensity and urban canopy, thermal heterogeneity and mean advection. The effect of urban canopy is considered in terms of an additional vertical velocity scale that facilitates heat transport from the heated surface and therefore increases UHI intensity. The model can well explain the trend of the simulated results and implies that overlooking the effect of urban canopy underestimates canopy UHI in urban coastal environment.

    more » « less
  4. null (Ed.)
  5. Abstract

    Solar‐induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) is a remotely sensed optical signal emitted during the light reactions of photosynthesis. The past two decades have witnessed an explosion in availability of SIF data at increasingly higher spatial and temporal resolutions, sparking applications in diverse research sectors (e.g., ecology, agriculture, hydrology, climate, and socioeconomics). These applications must deal with complexities caused by tremendous variations in scale and the impacts of interacting and superimposing plant physiology and three‐dimensional vegetation structure on the emission and scattering of SIF. At present, these complexities have not been overcome. To advance future research, the two companion reviews aim to (1) develop an analytical framework for inferring terrestrial vegetation structures and function that are tied to SIF emission, (2) synthesize progress and identify challenges in SIF research via the lens of multi‐sector applications, and (3) map out actionable solutions to tackle these challenges and offer our vision for research priorities over the next 5–10 years based on the proposed analytical framework. This paper is the first of the two companion reviews, and theory oriented. It introduces a theoretically rigorous yet practically applicable analytical framework. Guided by this framework, we offer theoretical perspectives on three overarching questions: (1)The forward (mechanism) question—How are the dynamics of SIF affected by terrestrial ecosystem structure and function? (2)The inference question: What aspects of terrestrial ecosystem structure, function, and service can be reliably inferred from remotely sensed SIF and how? (3)The innovation question: What innovations are needed to realize the full potential of SIF remote sensing for real‐world applications under climate change? The analytical framework elucidates that process complexity must be appreciated in inferring ecosystem structure and function from the observed SIF; this framework can serve as a diagnosis and inference tool for versatile applications across diverse spatial and temporal scales.

    more » « less
  6. Abstract

    Although our observing capabilities of solar‐induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) have been growing rapidly, the quality and consistency of SIF datasets are still in an active stage of research and development. As a result, there are considerable inconsistencies among diverse SIF datasets at all scales and the widespread applications of them have led to contradictory findings. The present review is the second of the two companion reviews, and data oriented. It aims to (1) synthesize the variety, scale, and uncertainty of existing SIF datasets, (2) synthesize the diverse applications in the sector of ecology, agriculture, hydrology, climate, and socioeconomics, and (3) clarify how such data inconsistency superimposed with the theoretical complexities laid out in (Sun et al., 2023) may impact process interpretation of various applications and contribute to inconsistent findings. We emphasize that accurate interpretation of the functional relationships between SIF and other ecological indicators is contingent upon complete understanding of SIF data quality and uncertainty. Biases and uncertainties in SIF observations can significantly confound interpretation of their relationships and how such relationships respond to environmental variations. Built upon our syntheses, we summarize existing gaps and uncertainties in current SIF observations. Further, we offer our perspectives on innovations needed to help improve informing ecosystem structure, function, and service under climate change, including enhancing in‐situ SIF observing capability especially in “data desert” regions, improving cross‐instrument data standardization and network coordination, and advancing applications by fully harnessing theory and data.

    more » « less