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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 16, 2022
  2. Small, low-cost IoT devices are typically equipped with only a single, low-quality antenna, significantly limiting communication range and link quality. In particular, these antennas are typically linearly polarized and therefore susceptible to polarization mismatch, which can easily cause 10-15 dBm of link loss on communication to and from such devices. In this work, we highlight this under-appreciated issue and propose the augmentation of IoT deployment environments with programmable, RF-sensitive surfaces made of metamaterials. Our smart meta-surface mitigates polarization mismatch by rotating the polarization of signals that pass through or reflect off the surface. We integrate our metasurface into an IoTmore »network as LLAMA, a Low-power Lattice of Actuated Metasurface Antennas, designed for the pervasively used 2.4 GHz ISM band. We optimize LLAMA’s metasurface design for both low transmission loss and low cost, to facilitate deployment at scale. We then build an end-to-end system that actuates the metasurface structure to optimize for link performance in real time. Our experimental prototype-based evaluation demonstrates gains in link power of up to 15 dBm, and wireless capacity improvements of 100 and 180 Kbit/s/Hz in through-surface and surface-reflective scenarios, respectively, attributable to the polarization rotation properties of LLAMA’s metasurface.« less
  3. Studies have shown that combinatorial testing (CT) can be effective for detecting faults in software systems. By focusing on the interactions between different factors of a system, CT shows its potential for detecting faults, especially those that can be revealed only by the specific combinations of values of multiple factors (multi-factor faults). However, is CT practical enough to be applied in the industry? Can it be more effective than other industry-favored techniques? Are there any challenges when applying CT in practice? These research questions remain in the context of industrial settings. In this paper, we present an empirical study ofmore »CT on five industrial systems with real faults. The details of the input space model (ISM) construction, such as factor identification and value assignment, are included. We compared the faults detected by CT with those detected by the inhouse testing teams using other methods, and the results suggest that despite some challenges, CT is an effective technique to detect real faults, especially multi-factor faults, of software systems in industrial settings. Observations and lessons learned are provided to further improve the fault detection effectiveness and overcome various challenges.« less
  4. Answering complex logical queries on large-scale incomplete knowledge graphs (KGs) is a fundamental yet challenging task. Recently, a promising approach to this problem has been to embed KG entities as well as the query into a vector space such that entities that answer the query are embedded close to the query. However, prior work models queries as single points in the vector space, which is problematic because a complex query represents a potentially large set of its answer entities, but it is unclear how such a set can be represented as a single point. Furthermore, prior work can only handlemore »queries that use conjunctions (^) and existential quantifiers (9). Handling queries with logical disjunctions (_) remains an open problem. Here we propose QUERY2BOX, an embedding-based framework for reasoning over arbitrary queries with ^, _, and 9 operators in massive and incomplete KGs. Our main insight is that queries can be embedded as boxes (i.e., hyper-rectangles), where a set of points inside the box corresponds to a set of answer entities of the query. We show that conjunctions can be naturally represented as intersections of boxes and also prove a negative result that handling disjunctions would require embedding with dimension proportional to the number of KG entities. However, we show that by transforming queries into a Disjunctive Normal Form, QUERY2BOX is capable of handling arbitrary logical queries with ^, _, 9 in a scalable manner. We demonstrate the effectiveness of QUERY2BOX on three large KGs and show that QUERY2BOX achieves up to 25% relative improvement over the state of the art.« less
  5. Many applications of machine learning require a model to make accurate predictions on test examples that are distributionally different from training ones, while task-specific labels are scarce during training. An effective approach to this challenge is to pre-train a model on related tasks where data is abundant, and then fine-tune it on a downstream task of interest. While pre-training has been effective in many language and vision domains, it remains an open question how to effectively use pre-training on graph datasets. In this paper, we develop a new strategy and self-supervised methods for pre-training Graph Neural Networks (GNNs). The keymore »to the success of our strategy is to pre-train an expressive GNN at the level of individual nodes as well as entire graphs so that the GNN can learn useful local and global representations simultaneously. We systematically study pre-training on multiple graph classification datasets. We find that naïve strategies, which pre-train GNNs at the level of either entire graphs or individual nodes, give limited improvement and can even lead to negative transfer on many downstream tasks. In contrast, our strategy avoids negative transfer and improves generalization significantly across downstream tasks, leading up to 9.4% absolute improvements in ROC-AUC over non-pre-trained models and achieving state-of-the-art performance for molecular property prediction and protein function prediction.« less
  6. Abstract Quantum chromodynamics, the theory of the strong force, describes interactions of coloured quarks and gluons and the formation of hadronic matter. Conventional hadronic matter consists of baryons and mesons made of three quarks and quark-antiquark pairs, respectively. Particles with an alternative quark content are known as exotic states. Here a study is reported of an exotic narrow state in the D 0 D 0 π + mass spectrum just below the D *+ D 0 mass threshold produced in proton-proton collisions collected with the LHCb detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The state is consistent with the ground isoscalarmore »$${{{{{{\rm{T}}}}}}}_{{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}}^{+}$$ T c c + tetraquark with a quark content of $${{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}\overline{{{{{{\rm{u}}}}}}}\overline{{{{{{\rm{d}}}}}}}$$ c c u ¯ d ¯ and spin-parity quantum numbers J P  = 1 + . Study of the DD mass spectra disfavours interpretation of the resonance as the isovector state. The decay structure via intermediate off-shell D *+ mesons is consistent with the observed D 0 π + mass distribution. To analyse the mass of the resonance and its coupling to the D * D system, a dedicated model is developed under the assumption of an isoscalar axial-vector $${{{{{{\rm{T}}}}}}}_{{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}}^{+}$$ T c c + state decaying to the D * D channel. Using this model, resonance parameters including the pole position, scattering length, effective range and compositeness are determined to reveal important information about the nature of the $${{{{{{\rm{T}}}}}}}_{{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}}^{+}$$ T c c + state. In addition, an unexpected dependence of the production rate on track multiplicity is observed.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  7. Abstract Conventional, hadronic matter consists of baryons and mesons made of three quarks and a quark–antiquark pair, respectively 1,2 . Here, we report the observation of a hadronic state containing four quarks in the Large Hadron Collider beauty experiment. This so-called tetraquark contains two charm quarks, a $$\overline{{{{{u}}}}}$$ u ¯ and a $$\overline{{{{{d}}}}}$$ d ¯ quark. This exotic state has a mass of approximately 3,875 MeV and manifests as a narrow peak in the mass spectrum of D 0 D 0 π + mesons just below the D *+ D 0 mass threshold. The near-threshold mass together with the narrow widthmore »reveals the resonance nature of the state.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023