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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2025
  2. Equations of motion for compressible point vortices in the plane are obtained in the limit of small Mach number, M , using a Rayleigh–Jansen expansion and the method of Matched Asymptotic Expansions. The solution in the region between vortices is matched to solutions around each vortex core. The motion of the vortices is modified over long time scales O ( M 2 log ⁡ M ) and O ( M 2 ) . Examples are given for co-rotating and co-propagating vortex pairs. The former show a correction to the rotation rate and, in general, to the centre and radius of rotation, while the latter recover the known result that the steady propagation velocity is unchanged. For unsteady configurations, the vortex solution matches to a far field in which acoustic waves are radiated. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Mathematical problems in physical fluid dynamics (part 2)’.
  3. Automatic argument generation is an appealing but challenging task. In this paper, we study the specific problem of counter-argument generation, and present a novel framework, CANDELA. It consists of a powerful retrieval system and a novel two-step generation model, where a text planning decoder first decides on the main talking points and a proper language style for each sentence, then a content realization decoder reflects the decisions and constructs an informative paragraph-level argument. Furthermore, our generation model is empowered by a retrieval system indexed with 12 million articles collected from Wikipedia and popular English news media, which provides access to high-quality content with diversity. Automatic evaluation on a large-scale dataset collected from Reddit shows that our model yields significantly higher BLEU, ROUGE, and METEOR scores than the state-of-the-art and non-trivial comparisons. Human evaluation further indicates that our system arguments are more appropriate for refutation and richer in content.
  4. Abstract The FASER experiment is a new small and inexpensive experiment that is placed 480 meters downstream of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN LHC. FASER is designed to capture decays of new long-lived particles, produced outside of the ATLAS detector acceptance. These rare particles can decay in the FASER detector together with about 500–1000 Hz of other particles originating from the ATLAS interaction point. A very high efficiency trigger and data acquisition system is required to ensure that the physics events of interest will be recorded. This paper describes the trigger and data acquisition system of the FASER experiment and presents performance results of the system acquired during initial commissioning.
  5. Fiber push-in nanoindentation is conducted on a unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced bismaleimide resin composite (IM7/BMI) after thermal oxidation to determine the interfacial shear strength. A unidirectional IM7/BMI laminated plate is isothermally oxidized under various conditions: in air for 2 months at 195 °C and 245 °C, and immersed in water for 2 years at room temperature to reach a moisturesaturated state. The water-immersed specimens are subsequently placed in a preheated environment at 260 °C to receive sudden heating, or are gradually heated at a rate of approximately 6 °C/min. A flat punch tip of 3 μm in diameter is used to push the fiber into the matrix while the resulting loaddisplacement data is recorded. From the load-displacement data, the interfacial shear strength is determined using a shear-lag model, which is verified by finite element method simulations. It is found that thermal oxidation at 245 °C in air leads to a significant reduction in interfacial shear strength of the IM7/BMI unidirectional composite, while thermal oxidation at 195 °C and moisture concentration have a negligible effect on the interfacial shear strength. For moisture-saturated specimens under a slow heating rate, there is no detectable reduction in the interfacial shear strength. In contrast, themore »moisture-saturated specimens under sudden heating show a significant reduction in interfacial shear strength. Scanning electron micrographs of IM7/BMI composite reveal that both thermal oxidation at 245 °C in air and sudden heating induced microcracks and debonding along the fiber/matrix interface, thereby weakening the interface, which is the origin of failure mechanism.« less
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  8. A bstract The first measurement of the top quark pair ( $$ \textrm{t}\overline{\textrm{t}} $$ t t ¯ ) production cross section in proton-proton collisions at $$ \sqrt{s} $$ s = 13 . 6 TeV is presented. Data recorded with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC in Summer 2022, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1 . 21 fb − 1 , are analyzed. Events are selected with one or two charged leptons (electrons or muons) and additional jets. A maximum likelihood fit is performed in event categories defined by the number and flavors of the leptons, the number of jets, and the number of jets identified as originating from b quarks. An inclusive $$ \textrm{t}\overline{\textrm{t}} $$ t t ¯ production cross section of 881 ± 23 (stat + syst) ± 20 (lumi) pb is measured, in agreement with the standard model prediction of $$ {924}_{-40}^{+32} $$ 924 − 40 + 32 pb.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024