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Summary This paper develops a functional hybrid factor regression modelling framework to handle the heterogeneity of many largescale imaging studies, such as the Alzheimer’s disease neuroimaging initiative study. Despite the numerous successes of those imaging studies, such heterogeneity may be caused by the differences in study environment, population, design, protocols or other hidden factors, and it has posed major challenges in integrative analysis of imaging data collected from multicentres or multistudies. We propose both estimation and inference procedures for estimating unknown parameters and detecting unknown factors under our new model. The asymptotic properties of both estimation and inference procedures are systematically investigated. The finitesample performance of our proposed procedures is assessed by using Monte Carlo simulations and a real data example on hippocampal surface data from the Alzheimer’s disease study.Free, publiclyaccessible full text available February 1, 2023

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A fullyintegrated mixed reality game system called multiphysics enriched mixed reality for integrated geotechnical education (MERGE) is developed to improve student education in the context of geotechnical engineering. This work allows students to learn the design of geothermal pile in a more inclusive way while playing a game and gain an "integrated geotechnical learning experience". Several mini games are designed for students to enhance the geotechnical knowledge. Players can earn points and update their appearance by playing these mini games, which stimulates their interests in geotechnical engineering. By providing students with visualization, collaboration, and simulation tools, we hope to promote the understanding of geotechnical experiments. Based on the laboratory results, numerical experiments are conducted to help students understand the geotechnical application. The leveraging mixed reality technology offers an opportunity for students to access advanced equipment in geotechnical experiments. The main contribution of this work is a discussion of the educational technology and processes behind implementing a mixed reality educational game. We provide developmental insights and educational background to inform researchers who seek to develop similar games.Free, publiclyaccessible full text available January 1, 2023

Free, publiclyaccessible full text available January 27, 2023

New phases of matter emerge at the edge of magnetic instabilities. In local moment systems, such as heavy fermions, the magnetism can be destabilized by pressure, chemical doping, and, rarely, by magnetic field, towards a zerotemperature transition at a quantum critical point (QCP). Even more rare are instances of QCPs induced by pressure or doping in itinerant moment systems, with no known examples of analogous fieldinduced T = 0 transitions. Here we report the discovery of a new itinerant antiferromagnet with no magnetic constituents, in single crystals of Ti3Cu4 with T_N = 11.3 K. Band structure calculations point to an orbitalselective, spin density wave ground state, a consequence of the square net structural motif in Ti3Cu4. A small magnetic field, H_C = 4.87 T, suppresses the longrange order via a continuous secondorder transition, resulting in a fieldinduced QCP. The magnetic Grüneisen ratio diverges as H→H_C and T→0, with a sign change at H_C and 1/T scaling at H = H_C, providing evidence from thermodynamic measurements for quantum criticality for H∥c. NonFermi liquid (NFL) to Fermi liquid (FL) crossover is observed close to the QCP, as revealed by the power law behavior of the electrical resistivity.Free, publiclyaccessible full text available April 1, 2023

Abstract New phases of matter emerge at the edge of magnetic instabilities, which can occur in materials with moments that are localized, itinerant or intermediate between these extremes. In local moment systems, such as heavy fermions, the magnetism can be tuned towards a zerotemperature transition at a quantum critical point (QCP) via pressure, chemical doping, and, rarely, magnetic field. By contrast, in itinerant moment systems, QCPs are more rare, and they are induced by pressure or doping; there are no known examples of field induced transitions. This means that no universal behaviour has been established across the whole itineranttolocal moment range—a substantial gap in our knowledge of quantum criticality. Here we report an itinerant antiferromagnet, Ti_{3}Cu_{4}, that can be tuned to a QCP by a small magnetic field. We see signatures of quantum criticality and the associated nonFermi liquid behaviour in thermodynamic and transport measurements, while band structure calculations point to an orbitalselective, spin density wave ground state, a consequence of the square net structural motif in Ti_{3}Cu_{4}. Ti_{3}Cu_{4}thus provides a platform for the comparison and generalisation of quantum critical behaviour across the whole spectrum of magnetism.

Abstract The Higgs mechanism, i.e., spontaneous symmetry breaking of the quantum vacuum, is a crossdisciplinary principle, universal for understanding dark energy, antimatter and quantum materials, from superconductivity to magnetism. Unlike oneband superconductors (SCs), a conceptually distinct Higgs amplitude mode can arise in multiband, unconventional superconductors via strong interband Coulomb interaction, but is yet to be accessed. Here we discover such hybrid Higgs mode and demonstrate its quantum control by light in ironbased hightemperature SCs. Using terahertz (THz) twopulse coherent spectroscopy, we observe a tunable amplitude mode coherent oscillation of the complex order parameter from coupled lower and upper bands. The nonlinear dependence of the hybrid Higgs mode on the THz driving fields is distinct from any known SC results: we observe a large reversible modulation of resonance strength, yet with a persisting mode frequency. Together with quantum kinetic modeling of a hybrid Higgs mechanism, distinct from chargedensity fluctuations and without invoking phonons or disorder, our result provides compelling evidence for a lightcontrolled coupling between the electron and hole amplitude modes assisted by strong interband quantum entanglement. Such lightcontrol of Higgs hybridization can be extended to probe manybody entanglement and hidden symmetries in other complex systems.Free, publiclyaccessible full text available December 1, 2022

de Jong, Bert ; Nieminen, Risto (Ed.)A kernel polynomial method is developed to calculate the random phase approximation (RPA) correlation energy. In the method, the RPA correlation energy is formulated in terms of the matrix that is the product of the Coulomb potential and the density linear response functions. The integration over the matrix's eigenvalues is calculated by expanding the density of states of the matrix in terms of the Chebyshev polynomials. The coefficients in the expansion are obtained through stochastic sampling. Since it is often the energy difference between two systems that is of much interest in practice, another focus of this work is to develop a correlated sampling scheme to accelerate the convergence of the stochastic calculations of the RPA correlation energy difference between two similar systems. The scheme is termed the atombased correlated sampling (ACS). The performance of ACS is examined by calculating the isomerization energy of acetone to 2propenol and the energy of the water–gas shift reaction. Using ACS, the convergences of these two examples are accelerated by 3.6 and 4.5 times, respectively. The methods developed in this work are expected to be useful for calculating RPAlevel reaction energies for the reactions that take place in local regions, such as calculating themore »