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  1. Increased use of technology in schools raises new privacy and security challenges for K-12 students---and harms such as commercialization of student data, exposure of student data in security breaches, and expanded tracking of students---but the extent of these challenges is unclear. In this paper, first, we interviewed 18 school officials and IT personnel to understand what educational technologies districts use and how they manage student privacy and security around these technologies. Second, to determine if these educational technologies are frequently endorsed across United States (US) public schools, we compiled a list of linked educational technology websites scraped from 15,573 K-12 public school/district domains and analyzed them for privacy risks. Our findings suggest that administrators lack resources to properly assess privacy and security issues around educational technologies even though they do pose potential privacy issues. Based on these findings, we make recommendations for policymakers, educators, and the CHI research community. 
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  2. Abstract

    Recently, the region surrounding eHWC J1842−035 has been studied extensively by γ-ray observatories due to its extended emission reaching up to a few hundred TeV and potential as a hadronic accelerator. In this work, we use 1910 days of cumulative data from the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory to carry out a dedicated systematic source search of the eHWC J1842−035 region. During the search, we found three sources in the region, namely, HAWC J1844−034, HAWC J1843−032, and HAWC J1846−025. We have identified HAWC J1844−034 as the extended source that emits photons with energies up to 175 TeV. We compute the spectrum for HAWC J1844−034, and by comparing with the observational results from other experiments, we have identified HESS J1843−033, LHAASO J1843−0338, and TASG J1844−038 as very-high-energy γ-ray sources with a matching origin. Also, we present and use the multiwavelength data to fit the hadronic and leptonic particle spectra. We have identified four pulsar candidates in the nearby region in which PSR J1844−0346 is found to be the most likely candidate due to its proximity to HAWC J1844−034 and the computed energy budget. We have also found SNR G28.6−0.1 as a potential counterpart source of HAWC J1844−034 for which both leptonic and hadronic scenarios are feasible.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  3. null (Ed.)
  4. Abstract We present the results of dark matter (DM) searches in a sample of 31 dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxies within the field of view of the HAWC Observatory. dIrr galaxies are DM-dominated objects in which astrophysical gamma-ray emission is estimated to be negligible with respect to the secondary gamma-ray flux expected by annihilation or decay of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). While we do not see any statistically significant DM signal in dIrr galaxies, we present the exclusion limits (95% C.L.) for annihilation cross section and decay lifetime for WIMP candidates with masses between 1 and 100 TeV. Exclusion limits from dIrr galaxies are relevant and complementary to benchmark dwarf Spheroidal (dSph) galaxies. In fact, dIrr galaxies are targets kinematically different from benchmark dSph, preserving the footprints of different evolution histories. We compare the limits from dIrr galaxies to those from ultrafaint and classical dSph galaxies previously observed with HAWC. We find that the constraints are comparable to the limits from classical dSph galaxies and ∼2 orders of magnitude weaker than the ultrafaint dSph limits. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024
  5. Abstract Extended very-high-energy (VHE; 0.1–100 TeV) γ -ray emission has been observed around several middle-aged pulsars and referred to as “TeV halos.” Their formation mechanism remains under debate. It is also unknown whether they are ubiquitous or related to a certain subgroup of pulsars. With 2321 days of observation, the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Gamma-Ray Observatory detected VHE γ -ray emission at the location of the radio-quiet pulsar PSR J0359+5414 with >6 σ significance. By performing likelihood tests with different spectral and spatial models and comparing the TeV spectrum with multiwavelength observations of nearby sources, we show that this excess is consistent with a TeV halo associated with PSR J0359+5414, though future observation of HAWC and multiwavelength follow-ups are needed to confirm this nature. This new halo candidate is located in a noncrowded region in the outer galaxy. It shares similar properties to the other halos but its pulsar is younger and radio-quiet. Our observation implies that TeV halos could commonly exist around pulsars and their formation does not depend on the configuration of the pulsar magnetosphere. 
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